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66 votes
Accepted

Is the discovery of tuff amongst dinosaur fossils in Utah incompatible with scientific consensus about dating of the fossils?

Has tuff found amongst the deposits at the Dinosaur National Monument? Yes. The most famous section of the rocks in Morrison Formation in Dinosaur National Monument, the Brushy Basin Member, is chock ...
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64 votes

Does China control 85% of the supply of rare metals used in lithium batteries?

...but China only has 37% of the world's reserves Michael Karnerfors has provided evidence that China produces 95% of the world's rare earth elements. However, China does not hold that much of the ...
  • 1,073
56 votes

Was the Earth one big ocean once?

I could not find any scientific evidence that the earth was once completely covered by water (not lava). However, Australian scientists have hypothesized that the land share on a planet 2.5 billion ...
  • 640
42 votes

Is this video of a fast-moving river of lava authentic?

This seems possible. The U.S. Geological survey states the following: Fluid basalt flows can extend tens of kilometers from an erupting vent. The leading edges of basalt flows can travel as fast as ...
  • 1,024
38 votes

Is this video of a fast-moving river of lava authentic?

It's Ken Boyer's video from 5pm 15 June 2018. A more complete version is here: https://www.facebook.com/watch/?v=1469403073205921 Ken Boyer Photography says: Nothing is even slightly altered. It's ...
  • 99.4k
33 votes

Is this video of a fast-moving river of lava authentic?

According to the USGS report: Fissure 8 lava fountains 52-70 m tall showered spatter onto the cone overnight into 19 June (figure 411). [...] Standing waves were visible within the channel and ...
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28 votes

Did all iron on Earth come from outer space?

TL;DR The majority of the Earth's iron was around when the planet formed. Calculations of the mass deposited by subsequent impacts show that these impacts were comparatively insignificant in changing ...
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24 votes
Accepted

Are Earthquakes on the rise?

The title of this 2011 paper pretty much answers the question by itself: Global risk of big earthquakes has not recently increased. (For the record: Peter M. Shearer and Philip B. Stark, doi: 10....
  • 134k
22 votes

Has fracking caused hundreds of earthquakes in Oklahoma?

There is induced seismicity in Oklahoma. There were 623 earthquakes above magnitude 3.0 in 2016. Some of these have been much stronger than 3.0, including a 5.8 magnitude earthquake in September 2016. ...
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19 votes
Accepted

Is the Yellowstone volcano due to explode?

To restate your question, How can we statistically describe the intervals between mega-volcano eruptions? Do they follow a particular probability distribution with known parameters? Can we use this to ...
15 votes

Was the Earth one big ocean once?

According to Essentials of Oceanography (2012) at page 13 The physical expanse and distribution of the early ocean is a matter of some controversy. Most researchers hold that masses of rock have ...
  • 99.4k
13 votes

Does China control 85% of the supply of rare metals used in lithium batteries?

China holds 95% of the world production of Rare-earth Elements When the letter says... The rare metals [...]. More than 85% of the world’s supply comes from China ...I believe the author means ...
  • 11k
13 votes

Did all iron on Earth come from outer space?

The mass of the Earth is approximately 5.98×10²⁴ kg. In bulk, by mass, it is composed mostly of iron (32.1%), oxygen (30.1%), silicon (15.1%), magnesium (13.9%), sulfur (2.9%), nickel (1.8%), calcium (...
13 votes

Is this video of a fast-moving river of lava authentic?

You don't mention your method for estimation so it's hard to respond to the specifics of your question. In general, I don't see any reason why a 35 to 50 MPH flow isn't possible once the initial flow ...
12 votes

Are Earthquakes on the rise?

I cannot confirm the numbers in the original image, although some of the recent numbers appear to be roughly consistent with USGS numbers. However, the general point seems to be correct: the number ...
  • 1,915
12 votes

Is widespread adoption of the electric car unlikely due to lithium scarcity?

No, lithium scarcity is not a barrier to the take-up of electric vehicles. From Bloomberg: The world’s largest untapped lithium reserve -- containing enough of the lightest metal to make batteries ...
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10 votes

Does China control 85% of the supply of rare metals used in lithium batteries?

Based on an CNBC piece with similar claims, the Guardian letter seems to be talking about cobalt: For example, China controls 80 percent of the market in chemical cobalt, a crucial ingredient in ...
  • 52.9k
10 votes

Are gem-quality diamonds common?

Upon closer inspection, such claims appear to actually state that diamonds cost more than their abundance alone would account for. Sources that outright claim that diamonds are common don't seem ...
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10 votes

Did all iron on Earth come from outer space?

Nuclear fusion is the mechanism by which most atom nucleii have been formed from the original plasma present after the Big Bang. It requires incredibly hot temperatures not found in outer space. Since ...
9 votes

Does "geopathic stress" cause illness?

By the very definition offered in the article: Geo means Earth and Patho means suffering. It means suffering from the earth which causes stress in the form of illness. The Earth has no nervous ...
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8 votes

Was the Earth one big ocean once?

Yes, the Earth was entirely ocean before any continents existed. The continental crust started forming 3.7 billion years ago. The first "micro continents", even if they were tall enough to have dry ...
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7 votes
Accepted

Did granite form instantly?

Here is a paper which was written to refute Gentry's theory: "Polonium Haloes" Refuted A Review of "Radioactive Halos in a Radio-Chronological and Cosmological Perspective" by ...
  • 26.4k
6 votes

Does China control 85% of the supply of rare metals used in lithium batteries?

As you can read in this article, the main metals used in the common design of Li-ion battery are Lithium and Cobalt; lithium is quite abundant, but cobalt is a bit harder to find. It is usually ...
  • 351
6 votes

Was the cretaceous the last time atmospheric carbon dioxide was significantly higher than it is today?

According to Coupling of CO2 and Ice Sheet Stability Over Major Climate Transitions of the Last 20 Million Years Science 4 December 2009: Vol. 326, pp. 1394-1397, looking especially at Fig. 2, 15 ...
  • 99.4k
5 votes

Are gem-quality diamonds common?

Total proved diamond reserves worldwide are on the order of 2.6 billion carats. This source provides numbers for some reserves in Russia along with their share in Russia's Reserves Register, giving us ...
  • 3,769
5 votes

Is radioactive decay the cause of the high temperature of the Earth's core?

I want to answer the second part of the question: I find it hard to believe since volcanoes aren't know for spewing long half-life materials. The calculations of heat generated by radioactive ...
5 votes

Can every grain of sand be addressed in IPv6?

IPv6 has 2^128 distinct adresses. As noted by Thomas O. this is more than enough for all grains of sand. Indeed, as one of the comments notes it's enough to give an IPv4 sized subnet to each grain ...
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5 votes
Accepted

Does New Caledonia have a quarter of the world's nickel?

The USGS estimates for reserves vary from year to year, depending upon nickel price, and have definitely been over 10% some years (see 2014 ; 2015 ; 2016). 16% is the highest I see so far from USGS. ...
  • 99.4k
5 votes
Accepted

Do the mountains around this Norwegian valley act like a giant battery?

The scientific literature has almost entirely ignored this theory The episode (9:54) doesn't present the battery theory as conclusive fact. It is just a theory. They still need to work out how the ...

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