273

This is directly addressed by the US Department of Energy at FuelEconomy.gov: It seems impossible that a gallon of gasoline, which weighs about 6.3 pounds [2.9 kg], could produce 20 pounds [9.1 kg] of carbon dioxide (CO2) when burned. However, most of the weight of the CO2 doesn't come from the gasoline itself, but the oxygen in the air. [...] Therefore, to ...


91

The English abstract of Zur Frage der Aminosäureisomerisierung im Mikrowellenfeld Ergebnisse eines Modellversuches mit Standardlösungen [The question of amino acid isomerization in a microwave field Results of experiments with standard solutions] Zeitschrift für Ernährungswissenschaft September 1992, Volume 31, Issue 3, pp 219–224 is: Aqueous standard-...


74

You can just buy adrenochrome, e.g. here from Sigma-Aldrich. It's somewhat expensive for a relatively simple chemical, but not as expensive as it would have to be if the only way to acquire it would be by extracting it from the blood of frightened humans. It can be synthesized by oxidizing epinephrine (also known as adrenaline), which is available pretty ...


57

The car does not run on water. The article you link says quite clearly that "The car runs on acetylene gas". Acetylene is an explosive gas that is used for welding, and before the invention of electric lamps it was used for lighting. It is produced from the reaction of calcium carbide and water, as follows: CaC2 + 2H2O → Ca(OH)2 + C2H2 The problem is ...


49

The linked site mentions that this has been validated by the USPTO. Not true. John Ellis has a few patents on distillers that do not mention hydrogen bonds (from USPTO patent search site with search string IN/"Ellis, Jr; John C" PAT. NO. Title 6,409,888 Method and apparatus for water degasification and distillation 5,203,970 Method for water ...


45

The use of Carbon-14 for dating is not completely precise. In general, 500 years is the minimum and 50,000 years is the maximum due to the need to calibrate for background C-14 levels, and to have sufficient breakdown to establish the half-life proportions but not so much that the sample is too small to measure. That said, they're using Carbon-14 dating on ...


44

First of all I will assume that by sugar we mean sucrose, which is the common table sugar. Here is the structural formula for sucrose: Source: Wikipedia - Sucrose If you are not familiar with chemical structures for organic compounds, note that every "corner" in a chemical structure like this is considered to be a carbon atom (C), even if it is not ...


34

There is a lot to unpack from that site; the majority of it seems to have little basis in reality. The short answer is that you cannot permanently change the hydrogen bond angle (104.5°) in water. EDIT: Free H+ binds to water molecules to form H30+ hyrdonium ions which do have a bond angle of 113°, these are small in number even in very strong acids and ...


28

This answer provides an example on how to address this question by citing basic science. Please ignore any voting on it. I won't perform any calculation here as they are not on topic on Skeptics, but the confusion seems to arise from the fact that in combustion a fuel (in this case, gasoline) and an oxidant (in this case, oxygen in the air) combine to ...


25

"One element away" is pretty much nonsense, and there are lots of kinds of sugar. Let's ask a more targeted question: Are some sugars closely related chemically to cocaine or any other drug? Yes, but it's not cocaine. It's the most commonly used recreational drug, alcohol. Ethanol, the alcohol in beverages, is H H | | H - ...


23

The answer is NO, but the question is poorly formed and we have to interpret it to get anything like a reasonable answer The other answers have already addressed why a simple interpretation of "one molecule away from" doesn't make much chemical sense. But if we generously interpret the intent of the question in a way that makes chemical sense as something ...


22

Yes, of course it's possible. It's one of the best ways to extract compounds in chemical workups via separating funnels: Denser liquids will move to the bottom of the funnel. Often polar or non-polar solvents will be added depending on the compound (Alcohols or Benzenes were common in my labs). You then open the tap at the bottom, extract whatever portion ...


22

There are several studies examining the intake of glyphosate, in many cases even deliberate intakes as a method of suicide. Most of these studies are not freely accessible (behind pay-walls), but in the abstract of the following study, you can find some numbers: Acute poisoning with a glyphosate-surfactant herbicide ('Roundup'): a review of 93 cases. The ...


19

The accepted answer on this is many years old but it also appears to be wrong. There is a very informative snopes article on the matter. which specifically references the source used in the accepted answer. The claim that “Liquor and wine are illegal in the U.S. unless they are radioactive” stems from an excerpt that appears in multiple books authored ...


17

I immediately thought soot from the yellow flames and dry snow. It is people, many of whom are unfamiliar with snow, misunderstanding what is happening. There is a good description from Chris West at Metabunk where he sets out three points: The snow is melting, but the very loose fluffy structure of the snow wicks away the water, turing dry snow into wet ...


17

Red mercury does indeed exist, mercury (11) oxide (HgO) varies from yellow to red, here. The more fine the particles the more towards the yellow it is, the bigger the lumps, the more red. There is the neat trick that if you heat it in a low oxygen environment (say one in which there is charcoal to snap up the O2), it decomposes to mercury and oxygen (2HgO =>...


17

It's possible, but not so incredible. The article writer loves to paint a picture of towers which clean the air and by a magical process, produce diamonds. It is real and possible, but less glamorous. The towers suck in air and filter it. They trap pollution in filters. Normal, conventional filters. A rate of 70% cleaner is definitely possible. ...


17

There is no consistent evidence showing a relationship between glyphosate and cancer There are a lot of studies on the relationship between glyphosate use and cancer. Some are small and poor; others are large and more reliable. It is inevitable and likely that some of these studies will report a connection between the weedkiller and cancer just through ...


16

Silver tarnish is silver sulfide, which forms in the presence of hydrogen sulfide.[1] Pre-industrial sources for hydrogen sulfide include volcanic activity (e.g. hot springs), tanneries, sewage, manure, and hard-boiled eggs (YT video). So, there were plenty of "odors" that would make silver tarnish back in the time, both in the city and in the countryside. ...


15

It cannot be done safely, or with more than limited success. Your results may vary. First, we need to understand how batteries work. Two chemicals with opposite charges are separated in a cell. When a circuit is completed from the cathode (+) to the anode (-), electromagnetism happens and the two chemicals react with each other, releasing electricity, until ...


15

Chlorine does evaporate, so if exposed to air (e.g. in a bucket) in warm water (especially under UV light or sunlight) it will probably mostly dissipate overnight. Both fluoride and chloramine will not similarly dissipate, if you want them removed you need to filter them out (e.g. with activated carbon) or distill the water. See: Can You Remove Fluoride ...


15

Your co-worker is right, normal paper deteriorates due to its acidity and due to oxidation. Paper in Europe was originally made from cellulose sourced from linen and cotton rags. This made strong paper structures, owing to the long cellulose chains. The degree of polymerisation - a measure of the average number of glucose molecules in a polymer ...


15

It seems like there are two parts to this question, and, perhaps, OP will tighten up the language a bit. Do we need to use detergent in washing machines? Depends on what you want when you wash your clothing, I suppose. It's possible, that for some people, the amount of dirt and soil removal from just rinsing is adequate. That's a matter of personal ...


13

IBM had a great project that provided pictures and even a video of atoms. The video is called "A Boy and His Atom." It holds the Guinness World Records record for the World's Smallest Stop-Motion Film, which isn't the most prestigious and convincing award, but it's something. You can see how it is made in the video, "Moving Atoms: Making The World's Smallest ...


12

The Wikipedia article on Crown Gold has a nice summary for this topic. Essentially, there are pure gold coins, e.g. the Canadian Maple Leaf, as well as alloyed gold coins, e.g. the Krugerrand of which e.g. the 1 oz coin contains 1 oz of gold plus another 2.8 g of copper. Historically, this alloy (22 karat crown gold) has been introduced (in 1526) because it ...


12

While the claim is certainly false for thermoplastic polymers like polyethylene, it's far more likely to be true for thermoset polymers such as polyurethanes, epoxies or phenolics such as Bakelite (which, being the first widely used synthetic plastic, may well be the original source of this claim). Specifically, a thermoplastic polymer, by definition, ...


12

This Indian Institute of Technology Bombay press release quotes some research papers This isn't really true. It is just one research paper, and one comment on said research paper. Also, it merely describes the paper, without quoting it. In any case, a major finding of the first paper is that there are discrete metal particles in the mixture. In other ...


12

According to Metabolomic and elemental analysis of camel and bovine urine by GC–MS and ICP–MS Saudi Journal of Biosciences volume 24, pages 23-29 (January 2017): Bovine urine contained 0.005673 ppm gold.


12

Not food, but microwave-vs.-conventional heating is a branch of chemistry: Comparison of Conventional and Microwave-assisted Synthesis of Benzotriazole Derivatives. So the basic idea that different reactions happen is obviously true when cooking food: It tastes different, the crust (if there) feels different, etc. You specifically miss most Maillard ...


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