An amino acid was first isolated in 1806, by French chemists Louis Nicolas Vauquelin and Pierre Jean Robiquet
The proteins present in food are all composed of a group of amino-acids. The amino-acids constitute the building blocks for many different chemicals made inside the body: in hormones, enzymes, DNA. encoding, RNA. encoding.... they play vital roles ...
TL;DR: Yes, a plant-based diet does use less resources than a meat-based diet. However, neither diet is currently sustainable.
First off, this is the (very long) "recent United Nations report" PETA is referencing on their website and this is the press release for it
The press release: (emphasis mine)
Rearing cattle produces more greenhouse gases than ...
The question is invalid, as we already produce way more than enough food. There is no more "world hunger" problem due insufficient food production. Currently much greater problem is an epidemic of obesity.
The lowest calorie intake is in sub-Saharan Africa, where on average people eat 2,176 calories per person per day.
Highest in US with a average of 3,...
Adele Hite wrote about this claim on her blog "Eathropology":
Let’s see how similar caloric intakes of steak and broccoli stack up when comparing how these two foods provide for essential amino acid requirements. A 275-calorie portion of steak (4 ounces) has 30.5 grams of protein and comes very close to meeting all the daily essential amino acid ...
To come up with the emission per child, the original source Reproduction and the carbon legacies of individuals Global Environmental Change Volume 19, Issue 1, February 2009, pages 14-20, is considering an infinite series.
In other words, having one child results in all the lifetime emission of said child, plus all that child's descendants' emissions. ...
This question is a very contentious one as it relies upon a lot of variables that are largely poorly understood.
The first part is arable land mass.
Currently animal production is focussed on either high value grazing areas or low value extensive areas. Extensive grazing areas cannot be cropped. That area of production would have to be made up by increased ...
There's a more detailed article on the subject here, written by the author cited in the OP, which may be the origin of the claim made in the Italian magazine:
The vegetarian dilemma
The elements of the argument, which justify the claim, are:
Most cattle slaughtered in Australia feed solely on pasture. This is usually rangelands, which constitute ...
Becoming vegetarian does change your digestive and hormone production in the body. If you don't eat meat there is less demand upon the pancreas to produce the enzymes necessary to digest the meat. Given our digestive tract is suited to a omnivorous diet our body is likely to adapt to the decreased requirement for the digestive enzymes (i.e. stop producing ...
This is the Chicago paper PETA is referring to.
This is the abstract:
The energy consumption of animal- and plant-based diets and, more broadly, the range of energetic planetary footprints spanned by reasonable dietary choices are compared. It is demonstrated that the greenhouse gas emissions of various diets vary by as much as the difference between ...
The Vegetarian Resource Group summarizes a survey: "of the self-identified vegetarians (32 total), 75% do not eat meat, fish or poultry, which we classify as vegetarian, while 25% do eat meat, fish or poultry."
A survey of 10,000 Americans 6% (600) of them self-reported to be vegetarian, and that 60% of the "vegetarians" reported having eaten meat within ...
The evidence about the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in vegans comes mainly from this review of studies in EJCN, 2015:
The results differed widely (2.4-78%) among studies, but 45% of vegans in average were B12 deficient, based on low blood B12 levels.
More than 85% of vegans who were not taking B12 supplements were B12 deficient, based on ...
In brief summary, "Yes, but."
To answer my own question, there is some real research on vegetarian diets for canines:
Nutritional and ethical issues regarding
vegetarianism in the domestic dog
(Citation: W.Y. Brown, Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition – Australia 17 (2009))
Many dog owners wish to feed their dogs a vegetarian
diet for ...
Since most of the answers base their claims on numbers and are a bit shaky here's something from human physiology and bio-availability perspective.
First lets start with mass, a very nice figure comparing protein intakes of different diets (strict veg = vegan):
Nutrient Profiles of Vegetarian and Nonvegetarian Dietary Patterns
Of course, this just ...
No. Vegetarianism is not associated with more healthful sleep patterns, per se. Lowering the intake of protein hurts sleep quality.
Moreover, the consumption of certain types of foods which impact the availability of tryptophan as well as the synthesis of serotonin and melatonin may aid in promoting sleep.
But reducing fat and salt intake will improve ...
The claims, like "meat, dairy, and eggs trigger an inflammatory reaction inside the body" arise from the studies in which they observed increased blood levels of "inflammatory markers," like C-reactive protein (CRP), in individuals on different diets. For example, in one study Dietary Red and Processed Meat Intake and Markers of Adiposity and Inflammation (J ...
Here's a link to an article about feline diet evolving idiosyncratic needs:
Idiosyncratic nutrient requirements of cats appear to be diet-induced evolutionary adaptations*
The nutrient requirements of domestic cats support the thesis that their idiosyncratic requirements arose from evolutionary pressures arising from a rigorous diet of animal tissue.
The graph is incorrect.
I will just look at Hungary vs. Greece for now, but other counties' data are available at the same source.
Coronary Heart Disease.....30.29%..........26.17%
The following photo shows Hitler eating meet with Prime Minister Neville Chamberlin:
And, as you can see, Rynn Berry has written a monograph disproving the point, the full text of which can be purchased here for all the sordid details.
Michael Bluejay also points out:
Robert Payne is widely considered to be Hitler's definitive biographer. In his book, ...
You do not need meat (or even milk or eggs) to get all the protein (with all amino acids required) you need.
The Vegetarian Resource Group - Vrg.org:
It is easy for a vegan diet to meet recommendations for protein, as
long as calorie intake is adequate. Strict protein combining is not
necessary; it is more important to eat a varied diet throughout ...
Exclusive breastfeeding, when possible, is the most suitable form of feeding for all healthy infants, including the vegan ones, up to 6 months of age (Vegan Society, World Health Organization). "Breastfeeding keeps mother and baby close. Physical contact is important to newborns. It helps them feel more secure, warm, and comforted. Mothers also ...
As pointed out in the answers by Looft and Jan, we don't need to eat animal products to get all the amino acids we need. Here we must also consider the fact that the recommendations by the IoM regarding the diet are not scientifically rigorous to such a degree that you can take their RDA as a scientifically established fact. Doing so would necessarily ...
A 2019 meta-review The effects of plant-based diets on the body and the brain: a systematic review looks at the available evidence. The final sentence of the abstract is
Still, putative effects of plant-based diets on brain health and cognitive functions as well as the underlying mechanisms remain largely unexplored and new studies need to ...
The average person will chomp down on 7,000 animals during their lives, according to the Vegetarian Calculator
The US life expectancy is 79 year.
The calculator says 15,958 animals for 79 years.
It breaks down to 11 cows, 27 pigs, 2,400 chickens, 80 turkeys, 30 sheep and 4,500 fish, according to the group.
There are rather thorough calculations ...
If you're talking about small babies, here's a review of soy formulas: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24507712 (emphasis mine)
The present review includes cross-sectional, case-control, cohort
studies or clinical trials that were carried out in children fed SIF [soya-based infant formulas]
compared with those fed other types of infant formulas ...
From Involvement of receptor potentials and action potentials in mechano-perception in plants Australian Journal of Plant Physiology (2001) volume 28, page 567-576:
Plants are always exposed to various external stimuli, such
as light, gravity, chemicals, temperature and mechanical
stress. The sensitivity of plants to these stimuli is as high as
Issue: Does the average American eat 7,000 animals during his/her lifetime?
2008 figures give a average number of total animals consumed per American lifetime as 21,000 (sea animals-19,000 and land animals-2261).
2009 figures give a average number of total animals consumed per American lifetime as 15,000 (sea animals-13,000 and land animals-2159)....
There are multiple peer reviewed studies that point the link between meat-eating and heart disease, as well as meat consumption causing people to die earlier.
Risk of hospitalization or death from ischemic heart disease among British vegetarians and nonvegetarians: results from the EPIC-Oxford cohort study
This was an experiment that ...