Hot answers tagged

114

The cancer.gov site you referenced says that the median age of diagnosis is 70. That implies that you smoke and then, later in life/time, you may be diagnosed with cancer. Therefore, for example, Lung cancer incidence statistics from the UK says: Trends in lung cancer incidence rates reflect past trends in cigarette smoking prevalence. Smoking rates ...


38

Toxicity: 30–60 mg (0.5–1.0 mg/kg) can be a lethal dosage for adult humans. As a rough estimate, a horse can be 400kg, so a lethal does of 200mg-400mg for a horse. Density from wikipedia 1.01 g/cm³. This means a lethal dose would take up 0.25-0.5 cm³ which is a drop of diameter 0.8-1 cm. This is quite a large drop, approximately 5-10times the dose you ...


29

Electronic cigarettes may not be harmless but they are clearly much less harmful than cigarettes Public Health England (PHE) produced a review of e-cigs in the middle of 2015 which came to this conclusion: The role and impact of electronic cigarettes has been one of the great debates in public health in recent years and we commissioned this independent ...


28

When there is doubt about individual studies, the place to go is a meta-study - one that looks at many different experiments, evaluates the quality according to a strict methodology, and pools the results to get stronger statistical findings. Here's one from 2007: Meta-analysis of studies of passive smoking and lung cancer: effects of study type and ...


26

This has to be one of the most pathetic attempts to earn money I can imagine - ignoring all of the evidence and actually recommending smoking? That is bat!@#$ crazy. Comparing the Risks Let's look at the mortality rates. (I've limited myself to just the evidence in the UK, because that is where this <expletive> lives.) 70-75 thousand people in the UK ...


24

Yes Most of the information on this subject appears to come from the work of Pourmand G, Alidaee MR, Rasuli S, Maleki A, Mehrsai A. at the Urology Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran The severity of ED correlated significantly with the level of exposure to smoking Source: Do cigarette smokers with erectile dysfunction ...


22

The Swedish summary appears to refer to this paper: Estimating the cost of a smoking employee, Micah Berman, Rob Crane, Eric Seiber, Mehmet Munur Tob Control, doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2012-050888 It was an economic analysis based on existing literature. We examined absenteeism, presenteesim, smoking breaks, healthcare costs and pension benefits for ...


17

Is 1 hour of shisha as harmful as smoking 100 cigarettes? There are studies supporting the idea that this is probably close to the right order of magnitude. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention claim The amount of smoke inhaled during a typical hookah session is about 90,000 milliliters (ml), compared with 500–600 ml inhaled when smoking a ...


16

In 2009, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) did a chemical analysis of several products from two leading brands of electronic cigarette. What they found was disturbing. Here are some excerpted points: DPA's analysis of the electronic cigarette samples showed that the product contained detectable levels of known carcinogens and toxic chemicals ...


14

In 2011, Cancer Council Australia and Quit Victoria issued a position statement, in which they summarise the evidence of the effect of plain packaging. They draw a number of conclusions, but the relevant ones include: "Current pack colours and imagery can dilute the impact of graphic health warnings." "Unregulated package colouring and imagery contribute ...


14

TLDR: The claim does appear to have support from scientific studies. Details: The original claimant has tweeted a citation to support her claim: It's true! Smokers die earlier so cost the health system less than healthy people who clog up hospitals in old age http://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/2/6/e001678.full The cited article ("The net effect of ...


13

Bananas contain no known psychedelic substances, so any "high" that is experienced is purely psychological. The book Rooted in America: Foodlore of Popular Fruits and Vegetables gives a short overview over the topic: For a few months in 1967 bananas made he headlines as the latest ingredient for a psychedelic trip. Underground newspapers in Berkley, New ...


12

It takes more than a drop of nicotine, swallowed, to kill a horse. Robin Sanecki, Ramesh C. Gupta, Wade L. Kadel, Lethal nicotine intoxication in a group of mules, J Vet Diagn Invest 6:503-504 (1994) This paper is about a number of mules that died from eating nicotine-contaminated feed. It claims, without a clear source, that: The reported minimal ...


11

The video shows a brief shot of their source: A quick search reveals this CBNC article: In a new paper, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta economists Julie Hotchkiss and Melinda Pitts found that smokers only earn about 80 percent of what nonsmokers earn. People who used to smoke and quit more than a year earlier, though, earn 7 percent more than people ...


11

The USC webpage states MARIJUANA USE CONSEQUENCES The well-confirmed danger of smoking marijuana is lung damage and lung cancer. As examples: 1 joint = 5 cigarettes in terms of amount of carbon monoxide (CO) intake. 1 joint = 4 cigarettes in terms of amount of tar intake. 2 joints = 20 cigarettes in terms of microscopic damage to ...


10

Depends on what you mean by "better", and what you mean by electronic cigarette. The FDA report that Oddthinking links to addresses the question of whether e-cigarrettes are useful as an aid to kicking nicotine, and I think that the fair answer to that is probably not: e-cig marketing doesn't seem to focus on ceasing to inhale nicotine into your lungs, it ...


9

There is good evidence that smoking bans reduce the number of heart attacks. In the meta-analysis "Cardiovascular effect of bans on smoking in public places: a systematic review and meta-analysis" published in 2009 in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology the authors state in their conclusion Using 11 reports from 10 study locations, AMI risk ...


9

One of the latest (Jan 2013) studies on this topic" published by the Journal of Separation Science begins by writing that "smoke is an extremely complex and dynamic aerosol" which forms from "a series of complex processes including combustion, pyrolysis, pyrosynthesis, distillation, sublimation, condensation, filtration, and elution." The same study isolates ...


8

Yes, some doctors do recommend smoking marijuana in certain cases. In this article in Virtual Mentor, Dr. Igor Grant, MD, says that smoked marijuana can be useful in cases of painful sensory neuropathy, and specifically describes inhalation as superior to oral administration. Grant is chair of the Department of Psychiatry at the University of California, ...


8

The CDC, NIH, Mayo Clinic, ACS, ALA, and the Australian Government are all saying the same thing. There are known studies that smoking lowers the birth-weight of a baby, which is one of the main factors in their likelihood to survive. It also raises the risk of SIDS. According to Laws PJ, Grayson N & Sullivan EA babies of smoking mothers are 50% more ...


8

Yes, the number is derived from a study published in Nature: If the majority of mutations derive from the mélange of mutagens present in tobacco smoke, the clone of cells that ultimately becomes cancerous would acquire, over its lifetime, an average of one mutation for every 15 cigarettes smoked. If this is the case in a localised cluster of cells, then ...


7

Despite the consensus, there are good quality studies that don't find a strong link I think the scientific consensus is clear: almost everyone thinks secondhand smoke is bad. But skeptics should carefully consider, especially in areas where emotions run as high as this, the alternative views. Here is a large scale study of the long term effects of ...


7

The reason one feels physical addiction is because one is physically addicted to a substance, which is not a "toxin". For coffee drinkers, the substance is caffeine, which occurs naturally in coffee beans. For heroin addicts, the substance is the opium derivative that occurs naturally in opium poppies (or is synthesized chemically to resemble opium, but ...


7

I was considering the same question when I lived in Shanghai (a very polluted city indeed) and was told that many industrial cities in the north east of China was many times worse. While smokers may decide how many cigarettes they may smoke within the limits imposed by their addiction, people have to endure the pollution in the city they live. ...


6

There are several different forms of dose-effect curve possible. A toxin following the "threshold model" has no adverse effect up to a particular threshold, and increasingly strong adverse effects past that threshold. "Hormesis" is a model under which small doses have a beneficial effect, but increasing dosage beyond a particular point has adverse effects (...


6

In 2010 the Wellcome Trust published One mutation per 15 cigarettes: genome maps reveal how cancer develops "These are the two main cancers in the developed world for which we know the primary exposure," said Professor Mike Stratton, from the Cancer Genome Project at the Sanger Institute. "For lung cancer, it is cigarette smoke and for malignant melanoma ...


6

tl;dr Going to a sauna does not speed up removing toxins from the body caused by smoking. According to the American Cancer Society: Different factors affect how long it takes the body to remove nicotine and its by-products. In most cases, regular smokers will still have nicotine and/or its by-products, such as cotinine, in their bodies for about 3 ...


6

The drinking and tattoo claims seem to be true. Does Ronaldo not have any tattoos so that he can donate blood more freely? This seems to be correct. Various places report it online, for example Yahoo Sports. Yahoo sports cites Diretta News in its article. that the footballer has confirmed that he has no tattoos on his body because they would prevent ...


5

Yes there is an effect but it may not be as large as early studies suggested with a result of reducing heart attacks by 3-4% in some population subgroups The trouble with science in areas where there is a broad consensus is that many people don't check their results carefully when they agree with the consensus view. And when those results can be used as ...


5

Pharmacology and Toxicology of Nicotine with Special Reference to Species Variation Science 02 May 1958: Vol. 127, pages 1054-1055 reports actual experimental data by injecting nicotine into the muscles of horses. It was determined that the "minimal effective dose" (meaning minimal dose required to cause paralysis) was 4.0 mg/kg and the "approximate lethal ...


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