36

This may be a reason for the claim, that "Bill Gates" was paid per line of code: Ars Technica wrote OS/2 was plagued by delays and bureaucratic infighting. IBM rules about confidentiality meant that some Microsoft employees were unable to talk to other Microsoft employees without a legal translator between them. IBM also insisted that Microsoft would get ...


31

According to Why So Few?: Women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics by Catherine Hill, Ph. D., Christianne Corbett, and Andresse St. Rose, Ed.D., 2010: Number of students who took advanced placement test in Computer Science AB: girls — 632 (13%) boys — 4,268 (87%) Number of graduates with B.Sc. in computer science: women &...


19

Common source for these claims is Peopleware. The authors claim that while conducting programming competitions called Coding War Games during the 1980s they found that: Three rules of thumb seem to apply whenever you measure variations in performance over a sample of individuals: Count on the best people outperforming the worst by about 10:1. ...


19

You're not going to find studies that do something like compare the effectiveness of a rubber duck vs a stuffed parrot specifically for programmers working on debugging tasks, nor can we really measure the size of the effect, but your main question can be answered if we approach it at a slightly higher level: does talking through a problem aloud aid in ...


16

This claim stems from theoretical physicist and urban theorist Geoffrey West, portrayed in this NYT article. The paper is called Growth, innovation, scaling, and the pace of life in cities (PNAS 2007, doi: 10.1073/pnas.0610172104) and available online. The indicators are listed in table 1 and clarified in the supporting information (extracts below). It ...


14

The question seems to be more scientific, but also comes with a lot of personal opinions and experience, since we probably all work. 40 hours of working might be too much already. There have been numerous studies that working more than 8 hours a day may literally kill you. So, we can rest assure that this surely won't increase your productivity in the ...


14

It is difficult to give a single answer to this, as there are many techniques, and any one of them might be much better than the others. It may make a difference whether these skills are discovered by experience, trained or come naturally to the individual. There are also a lot of different measures by which time management skills could be measured (e.g. ...


13

Here is a well documented study. Individual productivity was not the goal of this paper, but there is data that's related to your question. A copy of the paper can be found here On page 22, there's a box graph of hours needed to complete the program by language. If we assume programmer productivity to be time to complete a given programming task, then we ...


12

Abstract It depends. Among other things, it depends on how it's managed and what the occupants' expectations of sound-field are. Most organizations implementing open plan outside the financial industry don't seem to realize what they're getting into: Where open plan works The above picture is a typical trading floor. In this environment, the whole point ...


11

The answer to this is unfortunately a "we don't know". This thesis "Music listening in UK offices" which goes into fantastic detail and well worth the read on this subject. They conducted three studies and the conclusion was that music meant different things to different people and people had different reasons for listening to the music, but those people ...


10

He didn't say that exact quote; Lord Kelvin tended towards rambling, so if you see any particularly pithy one-liner quotes, it probably wasn't him. His actual quote? I often say that when you can measure what you are speaking about, and express it in numbers, you know something about it; but when you cannot measure it, when you cannot express it in ...


8

I found many research's papers addressing this question. http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=1865124&show=abstract The paper highlights that social networking technology can facilitate improved workplace productivity by enhancing the communication and collaboration of employees which aids knowledge transfer and consequently makes ...


8

here is a link to an empirical study conducted by a professor of mine. It may help answer your question. http://www2.gsu.edu/~ecobth/Fraser_Union_Performance.pdf A small exerpt from section IV Based on the extant evidence to date, a reasonable conclusion is that the average effect of unions upon productivity is small and, if anything, more likely ...


7

This article(more about the life of paper than productivity) says the following: But why do we pile documents instead of filing them? Because piles represent the process of active, ongoing thinking. The psychologist Alison Kidd, whose research Sellen and Harper refer to extensively, argues that "knowledge workers" use the physical space of the ...


5

So, in order to answer this question, I actually asked my father, who happens to work for Habitat For Humanity in NJ. While this cannot be considered definitive for all Habitat branches, it at least speaks to what I believe to be the norm. What follows is his quote in entirety: Work is done by volunteers under close supervision. I had to rebuild a closet ...


4

However if one would plot the number of transistors on a CPU not per year, but per number of produced CPUs (which I can't do, because I do not have the data for this) I guess this would give a power law, too. No, it would not. Doubling every 18-months is equivalent to 58.7% YtY growth. Generic version of Moore's law talks about doubling every 2 years, ...


4

It's not that obvious. "PopCap Break" 2008 report (original site doesn't exist anymore) suggests that: (... personal internet use in the workplace ...) is far from distracting employees from their work, taking a 10-minute online break during the course of the working day serves to reduce stress while sharpening and refocusing the mind. Dr Chamorro-...


4

The answer seems to be in some cases that taking a break can help. Various studies have shown increases in productivity and focus after doing something that requires very little concentration after spending a lot of time on a a task that required a lot of concentration. Other studies have shown that taking a break can have little effect while other studies ...


4

The relationship of financial incentives to performance quality and quantity is cumulated over 39 studies containing 47 relationships in the study 'Are Financial Incentives Related to Performance? A Meta-Analytic Review of Empirical Research' (http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Atul_Mitra/publication/...


3

First it's important to understand broadly what workforce productivity is, please see Wikipedia's page on Workforce productivity The OECD defines it as "the ratio of a volume measure of output to a volume measure of input".1 Volume measures of output are normally gross domestic product (GDP) or gross value added (GVA), expressed at constant prices i.e. ...


3

"Music is considered an ecologically valid auditory stimulus since many different brain centers can be activated through functional dissociation between the ventral and dorsal networks involved in event segmentation of music." Evidence is inconclusive to suggest using headphones to drown out office noise is detrimental since some studies show positive/...


2

Nobel laureate Daniel Kahneman says that short-term fatigue effects are real in his book Thinking, Fast and Slow: [A]n effort of will or self-control is tiring; if you have had to force yourself to do something, you are less willing or less able to exert self-control when the next challenge comes around. The phenomenon has been named ego depletion. ... [...


2

I've found an interview with Laurent Bossavit, were he discusses his book "The Leprechauns of Software Engineering". He makes that claim that the "10x Programmer" is for small sample sets with very old data. Many of the references are themselves to just copies of the claim. When I looked into it, what was advanced as evidence for those claims, what I ...


1

The answer would be No. - Assuming that the number of CPU's produced follows also follows a power law. The reason; If n^y CPU's are produced by year y. And if the number of transistors on CPU number n where given by t^n. Then the number of transistors on the CPU produced at the end of year y would be t^(n^y). - So we would expect a super exponetial growth....


1

Current understanding for appraisals Appraisals which are not linked to monetary outcomes such as bonuses, promotions, or pay rises seem to have detrimental effects for some types of employees. Hence, it seems to be really important that appraisals are linked to any kind of monetary outcomes such as bonuses, promotions, or pay rises. Performance ...


1

There doesn't seem to be an obvious increase of productivity, despite some biased summaries. It seems to depend on how the workplace is and the employees themselves: Lohr, Virginia I., Caroline H. Pearson-Mims, and Georgia K. Goodwin. "Interior plants may improve worker productivity and reduce stress in a windowless environment." Journal of Environmental ...


1

According to Cognitive Consequences of Programming: Augmentations to Basic Instruction Journal of Educational Computing Research , volume 2, pages 75-93 (1986): Teachers we surveyed recommended that we help students become better typists. Lack of typing ability was perceived as one of the largest obstacles to success in programming. So at least at a ...


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