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The following is accurate according to a scientific report published in Nature: Nature 525, 367–371 (17 September 2015) The contribution of outdoor air pollution sources to premature mortality on a global scale doi:10.1038/nature15371 Received 10 May 2014 Accepted 27 July 2015 Published online 16 September 2015. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v525/...


35

There are at least two documented cases where turtles were found with constricting plastic rings around their midsection. One with a six-pack ring, another with a milk bottle safety seal ring: turtle deformed from six pack plastic Turtle Mae West There is no evidence that these are hoaxes, nor that some other process caused the deformity. It is reasonable ...


29

There has been discussion on the Snopes forums regarding the second image. In the link, they discussed the case of Peanut the tortoise, which appears to be the same tortoise depicted in the first link. Therefore, at least the first image is authentic, and tortoises can certainly be deformed by plastic rings. According to the Minnesota Department of Natural ...


22

ONE HOUR ANYWHERE NEAR IT AND YOU'RE DEAD This claim is probably too broad and the information is outdated, but the general idea is correct. A quick search revealed a few relevant details: From Atlas Obscura: According to the Natural Resources Defense Council, the lake is so polluted that its waters will kill a human within an hour. From Basement ...


21

Driving a jet ski for one hour will produce the equivalent amount of pollution as driving a new car 100,000 km. This claim seems to be INCORRECT. First, the claim appears to be credited to Stienstra (1998): The state Air Resources Board is also considering taking statewide action against personal watercraft, after a staff report said that two hours ...


19

Yes. Drinking straws are a relatively minor source of oceanic plastic pollution. That is in perspective: Plastic drinking straws are a big problem in itself. But in comparison that problem is still a much smaller problem than commonly perceived or claimed to be. Other sources of plastics for ocean pollution are bigger in numbers, weight, direct or indirect ...


19

According to the US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service publication THE EFFECTS OF URBAN TREES ON AIR QUALITY Trees remove gaseous air pollution primarily by uptake via leaf stomata, though some gases are removed by the plant surface. Once inside the leaf, gases diffuse into intercellular spaces and may be absorbed by water films to form acids ...


16

No, this is not possible. The health effects of such a low oxygen level would have caused mass exhaustion, headaches, symptoms such as bluing of the lips, and probably collapse among weaker citizens (source1 source2) since no such health effects were observed this cannot have occurred.


14

If we assume the Chinese to be average in dying due to air pollution, we can use global WHO estimates to assess how realistic this claim is. WHO: 7 million premature deaths annually linked to air pollution: 25 March 2014 | Geneva - In new estimates released today, WHO reports that in 2012 around 7 million people died - one in eight of total global deaths ...


13

This claim is difficult to evaluate in part because there are too many different variables at play. Fundamentally the reporter is quoting a statement by Richard Muller, Scientific Director of Berkeley Earth who said the following in a press release in conjunction with a publication on air pollution in China: When I was last in Beijing, pollution was at ...


13

Summary The question as asked in the title depends on what you consider "strong evidence". I will therefore have a look at which side makes the better-sourced point. (Which is not just about "protecting people with damaged airways", but several other health effects as well.) One side -- the Umweltbundesamt -- gave references to studies the decision was ...


12

The African grass species Pennisetum purpureum was measured to produce 40 tons of dry biomass per hectare per year, of which about 44% is purely carbon. Does releasing the CO2 of 18 tons of carbon produce the equivalent CO2 as 6000 cars? CO2 has an atomic weight of 44, compared with 12 for C. So 18 tons of C will become 44 X 18 / 12 = 65 tons of CO2. ...


10

Is Bhutan carbon neutral? According to "Sustainability in an Emerging Nation: The Bhutan Case Study" published in Sustainability, Bhutan is indeed carbon neutral. The paper makes the following statement "it is interesting to note that only one country, Bhutan, has successfully achieved [carbon neutrality]." Another paper, "Carbon Neutral Policy in Action: ...


9

It was true in 1990 (narrowly true, not true "everywhere"). On page 10 of this PDF (which has "page 519" printed in the header of the page), which is on the Natural Resources Defense Council web site, it confirms 600 roentgens per hour (death in one hour), citing a (presumably Russian) document titled Practical rehabilitation of territories contaminated as ...


8

This is effectively a partial answer. It does not seek to respond to the overarching question of whether or not there is a causal relationship between poor air quality and death. I'm not currently aware of any notable sources who have claimed that it does not. It only seeks to address the direct claim that Stan Young's paper "debunked" the existing ...


8

According to Garbage Land: On the Secret Trail of Trash : In 2002, International Coastal Cleanup volunteers in 117 countries collected 1.8 million cigarette butts and cigar tips, representing 31 percent of all trash items. ... In 2002, International Coastal Cleanup had collected more than 8.2 million pounds of refuse, including 16,554 condoms, 16,144 ...


7

This answer skims the line on how much calculation is allowed and will only talk about CO2 re: your guess that the claim relates to the amount of CO2 released by 6000 cars in one year. According to the EPA A typical passenger vehicle emits about 4.6 metric tons of carbon dioxide per year. As such 6,000 cars would produce about 27600 tons of CO2. (of ...


7

I was considering the same question when I lived in Shanghai (a very polluted city indeed) and was told that many industrial cities in the north east of China was many times worse. While smokers may decide how many cigarettes they may smoke within the limits imposed by their addiction, people have to endure the pollution in the city they live. ...


6

With the understanding that correlation does not equal causation, the EPA's study of air toxicity (search for St. John the Baptist Parish, LA) indicates that the levels of chloroprene adjacent to the plant are hundreds of times higher than the maximum "acceptable" level. As chloroprene is only used as a precursor to neoprene, all neoprene in North America ...


6

If anything, some studies suggest that the present measurement methods underestimate the effects: A reanalysis of the data by Willis et al, restricted to people who live closer to the monitor, reported a doubling of the estimate slope per unit exposure, suggesting substantial downward bias by classical measurement error. The OP argues below that ...


5

Wikipedia says, Silent Spring was met with fierce opposition by chemical companies, but it spurred a reversal in national pesticide policy, led to a nationwide ban on DDT for agricultural uses,[2] and inspired an environmental movement that led to the creation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.[3][4] Has the natural ecological cycle spread ...


5

In answer to the title of the question (see the addendum to this answer for details) No, Google does not cause 40% of the CO2 emissions of all Internet Traffic. There's a case that can be made, however, for the statistic involving absolute emissions. https://www.vox.com/energy-and-environment/2017/12/6/16734228/google-renewable-energy-wind-solar-2017 From ...


4

TL;DR Yes, though only within a narrowly defined meaning: a petrol car driven only within Inner London, that drives an average distance for UK cars over its lifetime, will on average cause - through its pollution - health and economic damages valued at around £8k. The actual figures in the report are much more varied, complex and useful, varying between £1....


4

Generally, every car has a specific speed where fuel efficiency (i.e. miles traveled per gallon) is highest. This is mostly around 40 - 60mph (~65 - 95 km/h). Above and below this speed fuel efficiency decreases. So if you travel the same distance, you will use more fuel and therefore produce more pollution. In this paper the authors use a pretty ...


4

You are presenting two claims in your question, please split it up appropriately. I will hereby address your second claim. Research from 1986 to 1997 indeed confirms that some pesticides and insecticides can indeed be found in breast milk: Between summer 1995 and summer 1997 the median PCB concentration level was 0.502 mg/kg, the median DDT level 0.202 mg/...


4

It's really hard to vet an article when the only reference is to a study located behind a paywall. The only facts the article presents include: 12 million people who live outside London produced 77 per cent of the region's emmissions. Those 12 million drove an average of 15.6 miles The 8 million in London produced 23 per cent of the region's emissions ...


4

The claim isn't about pollution in general, but about "Feinstaub" - which can likely be translated as particulate matter - more specifically "PM10" (particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 μm): Da nun die meisten Feuerwerke in der Silvesternacht abgeschossen werden, kann gesagt werden, dass mit rund 400 Tonnen in einer Nacht so viel PM10 (...


4

From the 2005 Deparment of Energy standard on HEPA Filters: 5.2 Performance Requirements: Mandatory performance requirements for HEPA filters are set out below. These performance requirements shall be demonstrated by test and inspection by the manufacturer. These performance requirements shall also be demonstrated by test and inspection by the FTF ...


4

In coniferous regions, it is possible for conifers to be a major source of particulate emissions. A good study is Characterization of a large biogenic secondary organic aerosol event from eastern Canadian forests Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 2825–2845, (2010). Here we present evidence for the formation of the most substantial biogenic organic aerosol ...


4

So, according to the Washington Post version of the story (also behind a pay wall), it's not clear exactly how large the spill is. However, recent analysis has shown that the Coast Guard National Response Center estimate of 1-55 barrels per day (a barrel is 42 gallons) is wrong and the actual estimate is closer to 300 to 700 barrels per day. (The company ...


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