21

Vitamin supplements are not demonstrably useful for healthy people taking a healthy diet It is worthwhile referring directly to some of the primary literature for this question (especially so since I was heavily criticised for selectively quoting the @david-hedlund answer above in another question Are Vitamins ingested in natural food more effective than ...


19

Well, a student at Georgia Tech did an experiment on this, and some things noted are: Claim: The chlorophyll in wheatgrass rebuilds the bloodstream. But in fact: Chlorophyll cannot affect the human body internally because it is not absorbed. Claim: Wheatgrass contains enzymes, which aid our body in digestion. But in fact: Enzymes are produced ...


17

By itself? No. When paired with a workout regime? Yes. The purpose of Whey Protein (or indeed, any complete protein source) as a supplement is to be utilized in lean-tissue anabolism (growth). In order for muscle mass to increase, there must be three things present: 1) Significant stress on the muscles, either increased weight or increased length of ...


17

There are two manifestations of iron deficiency that could explain this claim: koilonychia and pica. Koilonychia or "spoon nails" is when the nail becomes concave. It can be a classic sign of iron deficiency on physical exam.* The nails of iron-deficient patients may also become brittle and/or split lengthwise. Some form of pica is present in about half ...


16

Is the depiction of the label accurate? Yes, the same information is available directly from the manufacturer, PepsiCo Canada: The "why" question is largely out of scope of the site. It seems likely to be simply a rounding or experimental error.


11

Since 1986, Herbalife have been under a permanent injunction from the California Courts, which restrains it from B. Representing that defendants' products contain herbs: (1) which in and of themselves naturally curb the appetite; (2) which burn off calories; or, (3) which naturally cleanse the system.... C. Representing that one who uses ...


9

While some studies have promoted Ginkgo Biloba as possibly having these effects, the results have been mixed at best, and the claims seem to be unlikely. WebMD says the following with regards to Ginkgo Biloba: Ginkgo improves blood flow to the brain and acts as an antioxidant. These effects may translate into some benefits for certain medical problems, ...


8

They state two differences between their product and plain Vitamin C It is not the free ascorbic acid but the calcium salt Vitamin C metabolites are present The first aspect is supposed to lead to a better tolerance of the Vitamin C, as the calcium ascorbate is less acidic than the free ascorbic acid. The metabolites are supposed to increase the absorption ...


8

It appears that the combination of ephedrine and caffeine may have a positive effect on athletic performance. From this AMA study on ephedrine: Efficacy: Athletic Performance We found 8 published controlled trials of the effects of synthetic ephedrine on athletic performance; most were crossover designs and all but 1 also included caffeine. One ...


8

The scientific evidence for benefits of milk thistle for liver damage is non-existent or poor. Where the evidence seem contradictory from multiple studies, a good way of resolving it is with a meta-study. Fortunately, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (a fantastic resource!) has a meta-study on the topic. Rambaldi A, Jacobs BP, Gluud C. Milk ...


8

I don't know if there have been any clinical trials on the particular product that Dr. Oz is promoting, but there have been several studies published in peer-reviewed journals on the effects of green tea on metabolism and weight loss. The 2008 study Green tea extract ingestion, fat oxidation, and glucose tolerance in healthy humans found that "average fat ...


7

No. After this extremely short tl;dr: to be fair, we do not know for sure. Because it seems to be quite complex, if not complicated. And that means the claim is at least very dubious. 25 years ago Vitamin K metabolism would have only considered K1 (phylloquinone) and discuss its role in haemostasis. That has changed and the other derivates are now under ...


6

The only ingredient that stands out to me is Huperzine A: Clinical trials in China have shown it to be effective in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease[4] and enhancing memory in students. Wikipedia cites the study Huperzine-A capsules enhance memory and learning performance in 34 pairs of matched adolescent students.: METHODS: Using double-...


6

As far as I can find where Vitamin C is concerned, the controlling factor in how fast it's absorbed is not whether the food is a tablet or an orange, but how much Vitamin C has already been consumed. The nearest I could find on the subject directly comparing the two is this article saying Orange juice and supplements are equally effective at Reducing Plasma ...


6

No, it is not well supported, but also not totally unsupported. At least it is not as much supported as the claim suggests and not in this automated equation it suggests. But this is still quite intriguing. There is a link between both vitamins. The pro position in favour of the claim simply states: [Vitamin D] Signs and symptoms beyond deficiency, ...


5

A causal relationship between glutathione and autism couldn't be proven. It is a risk factor (not a determinant factor) and it may be a potential treatment for autism. Glutathione is involved in neuro-protection against oxidative stress and neuro-inflammation in autism by improving the anti-oxidative stress system [1]. Children with autism have ...


5

Yes, indirectly. Flaxseeds don't inherently regulate hormones on their own, but they do provide a rich source of Omega-3 fatty acids. Omega-3s help by: "Enabl[ing] the fats to create healthy, flexible and responsive cell membranes that accommodates cells in a rather more convenient and easy way. While such is the primary health benefit of fish oil, ...


5

Folic Acid is extremely important in human development. It is one of the responsible for the full development of the neurological system. Low levels of it can cause underdevelopment of the neural tube in embryos, causing Cleft lips, for example. Flour is enriched with Folic Acid in some places. I'm from Brazil and we have Folic Acid enriched Flour. Meaning ...


5

The ratio of intracellular to extracellular potassium is important in determining the cellular membrane potential. Small changes in the extracellular potassium level can have profound effects on the function of the cardiovascular and neuromuscular systems. Low potassium (hypokalemia) refers to a lower than normal level of potassium in your bloodstream. ...


5

In short, no, Ginkgo bilboa has no particular effect on memory. Ginkgo biloba is a unique species of tree with no close living relatives. The tree is widely cultivated and introduced, since an early period in human history, and has various uses as a food and traditional medicine. Source The U.S. based National Institute of Health conducted a vast ...


5

Evidence: There are two forms of Fish Oil Omega-3 fatty acids which is triglycerides (TG) and ethyl esters (EE). Both are beneficial and are similar to each other in stability, efficacy and absorption. In short, the claim that the TG form is, in any clinically significant way, more advantageous or beneficial than the EE form is not supported by credible ...


4

A randomised, placebo-controlled, double–blind, parallel groups trial in 2010 by David O. Kennedy et.al. assessing the cognitive and mood effects of a high-dose B-complex vitamin and mineral supplement (Berocca®) in 215 males aged 30 to 55 years found that supplementation led to significant improvements in ratings on the PSS, GHQ-12 and the ‘vigour’ subscale ...


4

Chromium: Despite popular claims in nutritional literature, there is no definitive evidence that chromium (Cr) is an essential element for human or animal nutrition. 2012 - Chromium - biological relevance Chromium plays a role in insulin physiology, and severe chromium deficiency can lead to insulin resistance. Chromium supplementation may be ...


4

My claims: a) Short-term exercise, including marathon running (~4 hours), does not result in low blood potassium levels and therefore does not likely cause muscle cramps. NAP.edu b) Long-term exercise (hard physical work, several days in a hot environment) can result in mildly lowered blood potassium levels but probably not severe enough to cause cramps. ...


4

Just whey protein consumption by itself won't make you gain muscle. As far as whey is concerned it is a fast moving protein so if the body doesn't have any place to store the incoming whey it is simply burned off for energy. Here's the resource for this info. Muscles growth is based on two factors: Necessity for the muscle tissue to grow. Adequate ...


4

There were actually multiple scientific studies done on the fish ingot which led to the design being changed to maximize dietary iron. However, some of the studies were published in predatory journals and the peer review on these is dubious. Here are the more reliable publications: Iron-deficiency anaemia in rural Cambodia: community trial of a novel iron ...


4

Broadly yes, You lose most of the fibre present in the fruit, fibre is important for digestion and likely has other benefits (http://www.nhs.uk/chq/pages/1141.aspx?categoryid=51), it also helps slow the absorption of the sugar in the fruit as the gut cannot digest fibre. The vitamin/mineral compositions also change in processing and storage, the process of ...


3

One of the problems with the question is that it subtly presupposes that vitamin supplementation is good for us. But the evidence that vitamins or other nutritional supplements do anything much at all is weak to non-existent in people who consume a balanced diet and don't suffer specific deficiency diseases. For a good summary with links to the research ...


3

I started searching, assuming there would be no evidence. I was happy to find there was actually some - perhaps not the strongest, and not enough to start recommending that you take the tablets, but at least there was some. The two most relevant studies I found were these two: Westerterp-Plantenga, Smeets and Lejeune, Sensory and gastrointestinal satiety ...


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