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237

According to retired Lt. General Mark Hertling, who personally participated in such drills, and wrote Nuclear Codes: The President's Awesome Power That bag -- carried by the military aide -- has been within feet of the commander in chief ever since for any situation where the president believes the use of nuclear weapons is warranted. If that is the case, ...


148

Yes, they survived the blast. No, their survival was not unexplainable. The Jesuits are at two locations: They reside at Novitiate of the Society of Jesus in Nagatsuke two kilometers from the edge of the city (and 3 kilometers from the epicenter of the blast), but at the time of the explosion some are at Central Mission and Parish House closer to ground ...


130

This claim comes from Peter Schweizer's book Clinton Cash. The Washington Post notes that the details mentioned above are correct: The deal gave Russia control of about 20 percent of U.S. uranium extraction capacity, according to a 2010 CNN article about the deal. In other words, Russia has rights to the uranium extracted at those sites, which ...


102

Most likely not, at least not in the way these claims are suggesting. The article's claims are shaky at best, and go against both US and German reports regarding Germany's nuclear program at the time. APO 696: Two problems here. The linked articles base their claims on the "Recently declassified file APO 696 from the National Archives in Washington". A ...


86

The Royal Society of Chemistry states: Plutonium was first made in December 1940 at Berkeley, California, by Glenn Seaborg, Arthur Wahl, Joseph Kennedy, and Edwin McMillan. They produced it by bombarding uranium-238 with deuterium nuclei (alpha particles). This first produced neptunium-238 with a half-life of two days, and this decayed by beta emission to ...


76

No, this is not classified information. There have been plenty of descriptions of the timeline to launch US nuclear weapons, most much more detailed than anything Secretary Clinton said, and none of the people publishing them have been prosecuted. Also the articles giving those details are still easily available, and have been for years, indicating that the ...


60

Politifact evaluated a number of claims from Trump's press conference, including this one. They referred back to a campaign fact check where they rated a similar claim Mostly False: The reference is to Russia’s nuclear power agency buying a controlling interest in a Toronto-based company. That company has mines, mills and tracts of land in Wyoming, ...


56

The primary issue with the Port Chicago incident being due to a nuclear device is that it would require us completely rewrite the currently known history of the Manhattan Project [1][2]1 to include "The Gadget" not being the first nuclear device and that if one was created for Port Chicago that it predated The Gadget by almost a full year as the Trinity Test ...


56

Essentially, yes. ...though it isn't exactly a button press. (A binary "launch all nukes" command wouldn't really be a good idea if they weren't directed anywhere.) The International Commission on Nuclear Non-proliferation and Disarmament (ICNND) studied the process in depth. (They were searching for possible cyber-attack vulnerabilities.) The most ...


54

There were 4 priests at the closest location to ground zero, but they were 1,400 yards from ground zero according to John Hersey's 1946 book Hiroshima . Other people (non-priests) survived being as close as 300 yards from ground zero. (These distances are horizontal components only, with the bomb detonating at a height of 650 yards, so no one on the ground ...


38

Image Source From May Berenbaum, entomologist at the University of Illinois (a character in The X-Files was named after her): Rad Roaches (2001) In a study (Wharton and Wharton 1959), the authors conclusively demonstrated that the American cockroach was, compared with the rest of the known irradiated insect world, a wimp; Periplaneta ...


30

In "The Nuclear Energy Option, Chapter 13, Plutonium and Bombs" (Plenum Press, 1990, ISBN 0-306-43567-5), Bernard L. Cohen writes: When plutonium oxide, the form in which plutonium would be used in the nuclear industry and also its most toxic form, is inhaled as a fine dust, 25% of it deposits in the lung, 38% deposits in the upper respiratory tract,...


24

Yes, the global population would be at very high risk. Consequences would include: Direct thermal damage Direct pressure damage Direct fallout damage Indirect damage when countries stop working (lack of infrastructure/eneregy/clean water, collapse of civil society) Indirect radiation damage Indirect damage through nuclear winter, global cooling, ozone ...


22

Yes, Israel has been known to have nuclear capability since the late 1960s. As recently declassified documents show, they've reached secret agreement with US administration, which'd turn the blind eye. On the other hand Israel would maintain it's policy of deliberate ambiguity. National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 189 Israel Crosses ...


20

Two billion years ago, conditions in an ore body in present-day Gabon were suitable for the creation of naturally-occurring fission reactors, based on the fission of U-235, which at the time made up 3% of the uranium. https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/ancient-nuclear-reactor/ (This article references a 40 year old SciAm article: see “A Natural ...


18

Red mercury does indeed exist, mercury (11) oxide (HgO) varies from yellow to red, here. The more fine the particles the more towards the yellow it is, the bigger the lumps, the more red. There is the neat trick that if you heat it in a low oxygen environment (say one in which there is charcoal to snap up the O2), it decomposes to mercury and oxygen (2HgO =>...


18

Here is a letter, dated the day before the diary entry, which describes Hiroshima as 'an "Army" city': John Stone to General Arnold, July 24, 1945. Subject File, Atomic Bomb Collection: (1) Hiroshima (population 350,000) is an "Army" city; a major POE; has large QM and supply depots; has considerable industry and several small shipyards. Here are the ...


18

No. https://foreignpolicy.com/2016/08/05/our-nuclear-procedures-are-crazier-than-trump/ The author bases his estimate on information gleaned from a 30-year old book, so it's not exactly new information. Bloomberg also reported on this back in September. About five minutes may elapse from the president’s decision until intercontinental ballistic ...


17

The first image can be seen at the Hiroshima Peace Media Center, in an article titled "Hiroshima: 70 Years After the A-bombing: Students study in open-air classrooms in “A-bomb desert”". If you click on the first image, you get the following caption: An open-air classroom at Noboricho National School. A female teacher stands in front of the students. ...


17

Richard Shenkman is taking his information from the 1997 book What Americans Know about Politics and why it Matters, and has corrected the statement in the 2010 version of his book. The 1997 book says 91% stated "The U.S. used A-bomb against Japan" in a 1990 survey. (page 87, table 2.7) and also says 49% "correctly" answered a survey item "only nation to ...


16

That number was mentioned in the statement of Dr William R Graham and Dr Peter Vincent Pry, chairman and chief of staff of the Commission to Assess the Threat to the United States from EMP attack. The statement quotes an article by ambassador Henry Cooper, former Director of the U.S. Strategic Defense Initiative: The result could be to shut down the U.S. ...


15

That there was increased levels of radioactivity above the background level found at Mohenjo-Daro. This is unsourced and very vague. "In certain areas of that site, you find increased levels of radiation." In 4000 years, the Trinity site will only have slightly elevated levels of radiation. It won't make a Geiger counter go off-scale high. Radioactive ...


14

The claim is true but possibly only applicable to a very small range of situations. Upshot Knothole In 1953, as part of Operation Upshot Knothole, tests were carried out on miniature buildings to test the effects of extreme heat on the buildings. They did find that wooden buildings surrounded by dry combustible material were more likely to catch fire than ...


14

The original claim in English is from the 08 May 2016 article Russia's New ICBM Sarmat Can Penetrate Defense Shield, Wipe Out Texas which says: The broadcaster added that the RS-28 is capable of wiping out parts of the earth the size of Texas or France Where "the broadcaster" refers to the article http://tvzvezda.ru/news/forces/content/201605070850-p0pm....


13

Chris Landsea, Science and Operations Officer at NOAA’s National Hurricane Center, writes: During each hurricane season, there always appear suggestions that one should simply use nuclear weapons to try and destroy the storms. Apart from the fact that this might not even alter the storm, this approach neglects the problem that the released ...


13

The only plausible mechanism by which nuclear war could cause the extinction of humanity is nuclear winter. The world's present nuclear arsenal is definitely large enough that it would cause a nuclear winter.[Robock 2009] However, climate science is not a high-precision field. All we have are rough estimates. And even if we knew the exact amount by which the ...


13

According to a 2015 New York Times Article, At the heart of the tale are several men, leaders of the Canadian mining industry, who have been major donors to the charitable endeavors of former President Bill Clinton and his family. Members of that group built, financed and eventually sold off to the Russians a company that would become known as ...


13

I assume "the world" means Earth. It is likely that somewhere in the universe where a supernova (or a neutron star merger, see comment) has recently occurred during which the r-process prevailed, plutonium can be found. First, note that the most stable isotope of plutonium (Pu-244) has a half-life of about 81 million years, whereas the Earth is about 4540 ...


13

Summary: This paper is emerging science, and it is too soon to know one way or the other. "Has the fallout from American nuclear tests killed hundreds of thousands of civilians as the paper suggests?" This is emerging science and I am unqualified to critique the methods of the paper. When I am faced with a question about emerging science, I go through a ...


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