102

If Homer talks about the dark-wine sea, it seems he also talks about the "blue eyebrows of Poseidon". You can read here about Homer's colorful descriptions that helped orators remember the verses of his poems. κυανό is known to be "blue" for ancient greeks and became "cyan" in english. In this book about Homer writing, κυανό entry represents "smalt, blue ...


90

The first claim is based on the research of Berlin and Kay "Basic Color Terms", which posits the hypothesis that languages evolve colour terms in the following order, and therefore that ancient languages did not possess separate terms for blue and green: Stage I: Dark-cool and light-warm Stage II: Red Stage III: Either green or yellow Stage IV: Both green ...


64

A 2011 literature review looked at the problem as it related to one particular condition: Difficulties in diagnosing pulmonary embolism in the obese patient: A literature review. They conclude that there is a problem - not only are many CT scanners unable to handle morbidly obese patients (although this is improving), there are no guidelines for when this ...


60

Yes. You are referring to a classic experiment in Perceptual Adaptation from 1896: George M. Stratton, Some Preliminary Experiments On Vision Without Inversion of the Retinal Image (Read at the Third International Congress for Psychology, Munich, August, 1896.) Here's a video from a BBC documentary reproducing the experiment. You can also check this book ...


52

A “newton” is the international unit of force. A human adult’s maximum biting force ranges from 520-1,178 newtons depending on factors such as age and gender. It requires less than 200 newtons to bite through a raw carrot. This is well within the normal limits of the average person. Biting through a finger requires so much force that attempts often lead to ...


38

TLDR : Yes. A person wearing glasses that inverted the vision would in a few days adapt and perceive the vision as normal. see Perceptual Adaptation George M. Stratton, a psychologist, was intrigued by the idea of perceptual adaptation. Because the retina receives images upside down, he was intrigued to see what happens when the brain receives an ...


31

Ancient Hebrew has the word תכלת for blue (or more specifically, azure), as attested to in the Bible: Numbers 15:38: Speak to the children of Israel and you shall say to them that they shall make for themselves fringes on the corners of their garments, throughout their generations, and they shall affix a thread of sky blue [wool] on the fringe of each ...


25

The Scientific Consensus: No evidence they reduce cognitive decline In October 2014, a consensus statement was produced that rejected the key claims about brain games. The list of signatories include Susanne Jaeggi, Michael Kane, Randy Engle, Hal Pashler and a number of other people who can be considered eminent in this field (and who you'll find cited ...


20

The sentence is technically true, albeit drawing any conclusion about animal feelings from it would be very questionable. Our neurons secrete several substances, such as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and neurohormones in many different situations. The same molecules are used by a dog's neurons, or by those of a fruit fly or an earthworm for that ...


20

Birth order does not influence IQ but social rank in the family does. Birth order is not associated with intelligence in between-family data once the number of siblings is statistically controlled. The analyses support the admixture hypothesis, which avers that the apparent birth-order effect on intelligence is an artifact of family size, and cast doubt on ...


19

The human brain consists of about one billion neurons. Each neuron forms about 1,000 connections to other neurons, amounting to more than a trillion connections. If each neuron could only help store a single memory, running out of space would be a problem. You might have only a few gigabytes of storage space, similar to the space in an iPod or a ...


17

A History of Neuroscience article titled Genealogy of the "Grandmother Cell" by Charles G. Gross (Princeton University) says that it's fictional, a tall tale: told by Jerry Letvin in 1969 as part of an M.I.T. course he gave. The patient in the story was called Portnoy, whose Complaint was about his mother.


15

"Ears do not cross hemispheres" That's obviously wrong. Hearing, from both ears, is first processed by one of the parts of brainstem — mesencephalon (aka midbrain). On higher level it's processed by primary auditory cortex.


15

A number of injuries have been attributed to the practice of head-banging to music. The following list are individual case-studies, so should be considered little more than well-considered anecdotes. Carotid Dissection - a 15 year-old died of an aneurysm. Subdural Haemorrhage - 29-year-old had headaches for a week. Fatal Subdural haemorrhage - No abstract ...


15

This addresses the second claim. There are 4 types of photoreceptive neurons in your eye. One is the rod, which is sensitive to green but creates a black/white percept (for "scotopic" or night-adjusted vision) and the other 3 are cones with various types of rhodopsin, a receptor that is sensitive to photons. In a normal, unmutated (non-colorblind) person, ...


14

It's reported, but not conclusively demonstrated by experiment. Also, in some cases sex is known to cause migraine. I found absolutely no evidence for it being more than a temporary analgesic, let alone a cure. source Primary sexual headache This is a well known ailment which affects about 1% of the population. There are three main kinds: Early coital ...


13

Short version: A short-sleep human phenotype has been described in the literature. However, the reported sleep times I found in the scientific literature for those people are around 6h / day vs. 8h for controls, so nowhere near 2 h. About Tesla: The Wiki page has a paragraph on his sleeping habits where biographies are cited that he claimed to never ...


12

The claim is not true; neurons continue to form, and the connections between them to change, throughout our lives. This paper on neurogenesis (i.e. forming of new brain cells) opens with this sentence: It is now well documented that active neurogenesis does exist throughout the life span in the brain of various species including human. However, it ...


12

Yes https://www.centeronaddiction.org/what-addiction/addiction-disease Addiction is defined as a disease by most medical associations, including the American Medical Association and the American Society of Addiction Medicine. Like diabetes, cancer and heart disease, addiction is caused by a combination of behavioral, environmental and biological factors. ...


11

The website you quote makes it sound like the subconsciousness is a little man in your brain, with a book of knowledge, reviewing all the material during the night and "strengthening knowledge without your influence". Although the website doesn't properly support the idea about how post-training sleep might benefit memory consolidation, it does convey some "...


11

No one knows what "mind" is, but the brain is a bad candidate for hosting quantum superpositions, much less sharing them with other people. The most credible proponent of mind having a quantum component is the physicist Roger Penrose who has argued, beginning in his 1989 book The Emperor's New Mind that the human mind displays non-computable behavior and ...


11

The cause for most Alzheimer's cases is still mostly unknown except for 1% to 5% of cases where genetic differences have been identified. According to the Alzheimer's Association: While scientists know Alzheimer's disease involves progressive brain cell failure, the reason cells fail isn't clear. As for the claims by Dr. Perlmutter's book, there is an ...


10

This report is based on a paper presented to the USENIX Security Symposium. (Ironically, the web-site is currently unstable. Try hitting refresh.) The symposium does not appear to do a full peer review of presentations, but has refereed papers and invited talks. It isn't clear that the referees would be experts in neuroscience. Therefore, it would be nice ...


10

Is this image "lying", not showing both types of connections for both genders? The article claims scientific accuracy and to report a scientific paper: does this image represent its conclusions in a fair manner? Well, it's certainly reporting some of the conclusions correctly. But it's not telling the whole truth. The article doesn't seem to give the exact ...


10

There is anecdotal evidence to support the notion that some obese patients might have been referred to a zoo. Here is a recent NY Times article that explores the standard of care obese patients are receiving. From the article: When an obese patient cannot fit in a scanner, doctors may just give up. Some use X-rays to scan, hoping for the best. Others ...


9

This area has recently received a good deal of attention, with conflicting results. This recent study compared the prevalence of ASD in technical and non-technical students in the Netherlands. They found a statistically significant difference between the two groups. One interesting study examined whether the children of engineers are more likely to have ...


9

How much memory capacity does a tree have? If you punch a hole into the tree the tree stores the information of that punch a long time into the future by keeping the hole. It doesn't really make sense to quantify the amount of information that the tree can store. Evolution didn't design humans to be good at recalling past events. It designed us to be good ...


8

There is no conclusive evidence for or against amphetamine affecting creativity. Martha Farah's comments are liklely based on a small study (linked here) she and colleagues ran in 18 participants. The tasks were brief puzzles (rather than longer meaningful tasks one might expect to be sensitive to drugs that enable prolonged focus). Results were fairly ...


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