107

This is an old myth from the days of Orientalism. Unfortunately Wikipedia is often edited precisely by people who have simply seen popular accounts by people like Tyson (or Skeptoid podcast, or The New Atlantis) produced with no understanding of the history of science or human thought. The fact is that Ghazzālī nowhere professed that reason or knowledge is ...


19

I have to admit I only stumbled upon this question due to the activity on Jeff Blaine's post. However, it did spark enough interest for me to do a little poking into the matter. Honestly, I can't say there's nothing to it, but it hasn't exactly knocked my socks off so to speak. "Plausible but not conclusive" really gets to the heart of it. Based on ...


14

It can, but only if it's chronic jet-lag (i.e. You're a long haul flight attendant or pilot, or you make long haul trips regularly). A paper in Nature Neuroscience, Chronic 'jet lag' produces temporal lobe atrophy and spatial cognitive deficits, came to the following conclusion: Time-zone travelers encounter a pattern of light and darkness, and their ...


13

The question cannot be answered with a simple 'yes' or 'no', be it about Polish or any other language, as "language difficulty" is not readily definable. For example, there is an effort among linguists to use "language markedness" to predict language difficulty. Jakobson (1941, 1963), however, observed that the marked members of oppositions were ...


11

The website you quote makes it sound like the subconsciousness is a little man in your brain, with a book of knowledge, reviewing all the material during the night and "strengthening knowledge without your influence". Although the website doesn't properly support the idea about how post-training sleep might benefit memory consolidation, it does convey some "...


11

I have done a reasonable amount of searching and was only able to find one experiment that provided solid data on what you were asking. Foreign-language experience in infancy: Effects of short-term exposure and social interaction on phonetic learning (Kuhl et al. 2003) The results indicate limits on phonetic learning; 9-mo-old infants exposed to ...


8

Unfortunately, without any conclusive audio of Langan speaking at 6 months we can't really prove whether he could or could not speak. However, it is possible, though unlikely, that he could speak very simple words that early. Such words would depend on fast physical development rather than high IQ, and wouldn't mean he 'learned to speak'. The first step on ...


7

TLDR version: the jury's still out. There's limited evidence of improvement in narrow tasks, mainly in memory (particularly on stimulants) and in some sub-groups of individuals. There's also a divergence of results on short and long term effects (mostly noted on modafinil)... possibly due to publication bias. Motivation has been offered as a more important ...


7

The most famous study is talking about so called "The Mozart effect". In 1993 Rauscher et al. made the surprising claim that, after listening to Mozart's sonata for two pianos (K448) for 10 minutes, normal subjects showed significantly better spatial reasoning skills than after periods of listening to relaxation instructions designed to lower ...


7

Is there any evidence supporting Khan's (and others like his) concept? There is at least one study that is supportive of the general concept. Effectiveness of video as an instructional medium in teaching rural children However there are almost certainly important differences which may have a bearing, for example the availablity of a teacher, familiar with ...


6

(I'm a software engineer at Khan Academy.) Today, SRI International released a research report on a two-year study of the use of Khan Academy in schools. We're encouraged by the results. It doesn't cover the use of Khan Academy instead of traditional teaching as your question suggests but instead its use as a supplemental tool. The full report is available ...


6

I think the 10,000 hours of practice you are referring to is the idea that Anders Ericsson talks about in some of his work on expertise, made popular by Malcolm Gladwells book "Outliers". The idea is not just 10,000 hours of repetitive practice, but Ericsson talks about the concept of "deliberate practice". It's practice that has the qualities of: being ...


5

I think it is difficult to precisely answer this question, as the way a child learns something is not necessarily the same as an adult does. Also, depending on the task, young children may be at disadvantage, due to their lack of abstraction abilities. A child may be able learn a language faster, but an adult may pick up subtilities such as humour, double ...


4

Well it's hardly a full-scale scientific trial, but someone is actually putting this to the test right now: there is a Dan McLaughlin who has set out to do 10,000 hours of deliberate golf practice from complete novice... and we'll just have to wait and see how good they end up. So far they've done around 3,300 hours. The Freakonomics people have some ...


4

Children of Deaf adults (CODAs) learn to sign as babies. My son (20 Months) has a signed vocabulary of over 55 words in addition to his spoken vocabulary and we have used no purchased products and I am hearing. ASL is a language and just as toddlers can learn to speak Spanish and English if they are exposed to both on a regular basis, they can learn to ...


4

The answer to this question is going to depend on definitions - what is an "Average Retention Rate"? Based on how much teaching? etc. To understand the claim, we need to go back to the source. But the source research behind this diagram has been lost in the past fifty years. TEACHING AND LEARNING ACTIVITIES: EXPANDING THE REPERTOIRE TO SUPPORT STUDENT ...


4

Before I get into detail, I'd like to make a few remarks regarding the questions and their possible pitfalls. First of all, it is not easy to assess how difficult it is for young children to learn a language because they cannot provide you with cognitive feedback until a certain age. That is why "more difficult" lacks a starting point that it can be ...


4

See page 61 of The Design of Future Educational Interfaces : An analysis of matched pairs of problems revealed that when biology students constructed diagrams their scores averaged 36% ... In addition to facilitating hypothesis generation, students' active construction of diagrams and thinking marks was associated with 25–36% higher problem-solution ...


4

Ghazali actually praised the disciplines of math and science saying they are necessary to a prosperous society. Sciences whose knowledge is deemed fard kifayah comprise [all] sciences which are indispensable for the welfare of this world such as: medicine which is necessary for the life of the body, arithmetic for daily transactions and the ...


3

According to this review of studies, children develop a sense of gender quite early and can relate it to themselves early as well: A related question is, when do children recognize their own sex? Infants as young as three to four months of age distinguish between categories of female and male faces [...] By 10 months, infants are able to form stereotypic ...


3

UPDATE: After a quick Google search I found this study: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1868823/ J Appl Behav Anal. 2007 Spring; 40(1): 15–23. doi: 10.1901/jaba.2007.23-06 and this one http://www.mybabycantalk.com/content/information/research/Impact%20of%20Symbolic%20Gesturing.pdf published in Journal of Nonverbal Behavior Volume 24, Number ...


2

From Exercise and the brain: something to chew on: Evidence is accumulating that exercise has profound benefits for brain function. Physical activity improves learning and memory in humans and animals. Moreover, an active lifestyle might prevent or delay loss of cognitive function with aging or neurodegenerative disease. Nutrition and ...


2

This is slightly off the wall, but one particular study looks at the effect of music on Netball players. But I think it translates across, especially with the swimming comparison, because it's about psychological state called "flow". Their conclusion was: "Interventions comprising self-selected music and imagery can enhance athletic performance by ...


2

If you are a programmer, there is an old yet well-known article by Peter Norvig, Director of Research at Google. It's called Teach Yourself Programming in Ten Years. Several studies are quoted, as well as the Malcolm Gladwell report. The 10 000 hours are the result of a study on students at the Berlin Academy of Music.


1

The talk says that "10,000 hours" is, to within an order of magnitude, the amount of practice required to get expert-level performance: e.g. to be a professional athlete. It says that, conversely, with a bit of practice you can get really good, really quickly. The following is, I think, an example of the truth of that: Those who pass their driving test ...


1

This video discusses some of the problems with Khan Academy (and similar) videos. It seems that while these videos can definitely be useful, there are some problems with them in certain cases, most notably not paying enough attention and not recognising misconceptions.


1

This paper (PDF) seems to indicate a "post-training" nap has beneficial effects on adults learning a new skill - Sleep Dependent Learning: A Nap is as Good as a Night, Mednick, S., Nakayama, K., Stickgold, R.


1

According to focus@will, the answer is that it depends on the music in question. f@w is a music service claiming to use neuroscience to sequence their music to enhance concentration: f@w has published a white paper[pdf] on their first experiment in 2013, showing a 12% increase in beta and theta frequencies at P3 and P4 when listening to f@w-designed music ...


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