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52

Washing your hands with plain water of a normal temperature is significantly less able to effectively sanitise against bacteria, viruses, and many protozoa. The oil on your skin will hold pathogens pretty effectively. The detergent in the soap helps to break down the cell walls in some types of prokaryotes (bacteria) and eukaryotes (other living microbes) ...


42

A more recent study (also published by the CDC) seems to indicate that 30% might be a good enough concentration against SARS-CoV-2: [Figure legend:] Effect of commercially available alcohols in inactivating SARS-CoV-2. The means of 3 independent experiments with SDs (error bars) are shown. A) Results for ethanol. B) Results for 2-propanol. Dark gray bar ...


39

There are only three studies in PubMed that mention CrissCross bristle design explicitly. The first, authored by Oral-B Laboratories, finds that "comparisons with more than 80 leading manual toothbrushes from around the world demonstrate a consistent, significant advantage for the new CrossAction toothbrush, both with respect to interproximal penetration ...


32

According to research at UC-Davis, quite the opposite is true. The key finding: Our safety concern was that bacteria such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella, which might contaminate a work surface when raw meat was being prepared, ought not remain on the surface to contaminate other foods that might be eaten without further cooking. We soon ...


29

Washing your hands with plain water does reduce germs. It just does not remove as many of them as using soap would. Source: Same link as Michael, and sorry for the hijack -- I know this to be true from University (where I studied Biology), but could not have come up with an English language source ad-hoc. Handwashing with water alone reduced the ...


20

Cleaning your hands The UK NHS has a write up of a 2012 review of the evidence in Mayo Clinic Proceedings. They note that the papers reviewed reported different results, probably due to factors such as the type of hand drier and washing and drying techniques. The review concludes: Most studies have found that paper towels can dry hands efficiently, remove ...


20

The beneficial strain of E. coli K-12 has a negative ORP. Therefore, the original claim cannot be universally true. Furthermore, E. coli is a facultative anaerobe, which means it can survive in both oxygenated and oxygen-free environments. Since some strains of E. coli are pathogens, this means that the claims elsewhere in that document that oxygen kills ...


15

According to Elemental concentrations and metal bioaccessibility in UK household dust Science of the Total Environment vol. 371, pages 74–81. Household dust has many internal and external sources, including garden soil, road dust, human hair and skin, carpet and clothing fibres, paint chips and fungi, resulting in a heterogeneous matrix of organic matter ...


15

Bottom line: It doesn't matter if you floss before or after brushing your teeth. This question has been debated endlessly within the dental community. On this site it is really hard to conclude which one is better due to many different papers like you cited and many different points of views from dentists and professionals. I will cite one answer only ...


14

It would be important to note first the cultural difference between bathing in Malaysia and Indonesia, and the western world. In both countries, the most common form of bathing is through mandi, which utilizes a ladle water system (http://www.webcitation.org/5x2caStUE). The primary area to note in reference to the use of mandi rather than the typical ...


14

There's a study here from the US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health website (Lukasik J, et al) entitled "Reduction of poliovirus 1, bacteriophages, Salmonella montevideo, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on strawberries by physical and disinfectant washes." This study describes the anti-bacterial effects of a "vinegar wash". Apparently ...


14

Summary In the US and Canada, if you buy wipes which say "Flushable" on the package, you normally should never flush them. (Source.) If you do, they may clog your pipes or your local sewer / septic system. And a sewer clog may cause sewage to seep into your basement. (Source.) Instead of flushing wipes down the toilet, you can use unscented baby wipes. ...


14

This 2015 study, Bactericidal effects of triclosan in soap both in vitro and in vivo, suggests the most popular active ingredient, triclosan, had no effect for exposures commensurate with hand-washing: RESULTS: There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in bactericidal activity between plain soap and antibacterial soap at either test temperature....


12

In 2005, a study was done comparing a number of hand drying methods: Yamamoto Y, Ugai K, Takahashi Y. Efficiency of hand drying for removing bacteria from washed hands: comparison of paper towel drying with warm air drying. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2005;26(3):316–20. The abstract explains the study supports the use of UV light on hand dryers: Log ...


11

TLDR; We don't really know. WebMD has a good summary of the current state of science on this topic: One of the most publicized and controversial theories concerns aluminum, which became a suspect in Alzheimer's disease when researchers found traces of this metal in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Many studies since then have either not ...


11

Pathogens create a waste material that is poisonous to the body. The more common definition of pathogen is that it does harm to its host - see abstract of this interesting looking paper "What is a pathogen?" which notes that "pathogen" is mutually defined with "host" - a pathogen for one organism may be innocuous or even beneficial to another. Similarly the ...


10

While it is nearly impossible to carry out an experiment on whether hand sanitiser usage will cause the immune system to misfire/fail, there have indeed been peer-reviewed experiments carried out on the fact that significant reduction in exposure to infections/antigens (a likely result of overuse of hand sanitisers) may result in a hampered immune system, ...


10

Summary: A. Using fluoridated toothpaste in both children and adults reduces the risk of dental caries. B. Fluoridated toothpaste increases the risk of dental fluorosis only when children 8 years old or younger swallow it, in which case fluoride is absorbed, enters the blood and from there the teeth. Fluoride in children in adults does not enter the teeth ...


10

Not necessarily, but it's too broad an assertion to make really. There is plenty of literature supporting a correlation between handwashing and infection rates, all concluding that more handwashing = less infection. There's also plenty on actually swabbing hands for pathogens. These are useful articles on the subject: NIH Handwashing EBM paper ...


9

The search for "miswak" returns 72 hits on PubMed, which is one of the most comprehensive databases of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. I have briefly reviewed the abstracts of each, and none support anything but claims related to oral hygiene. Having said that, there are numerous studies supporting the link between oral ...


9

1) Was Ignaz Phillip Semmelweis the first to identify or a pioneer in identifying, the importance of hygiene in these cases? A. Ignaz Semmelweis was not the first to emphasize the significance of hand decontamination but he was the first from Europe who demonstrated the importance through statistical numbers. There were others prior to him such as Antoine ...


8

While I cannot speak to the veracity of the video, gutter oil is mentioned enough times in other verifiable sources to make it a reasonably accurate story. An article in Bioresource Technology mentions "popular concern on food security caused by illegal use of gutter oil in China" as well as "producing biodiesel from gutter oil."1 There is another article ...


8

A study done (1) by Ciri Science, the Cleaning Industry Research Institute, sampled 47 public restrooms to test the presence of bacteria on various bathroom surfaces and found that women’s bathrooms are 4.5 times more likely to have Escherichia coli bacteria in them, and that men's bathrooms are cleaner: A comparison between the relative cleanliness of ...


8

Blending vinegar (a dilute acetic acid) with baking soda (a base) essentially produces a neutral (neither acidic or basic) The chemical equation for the overall reaction is: NaHCO3(s) + CH3COOH(l) → CO2(g) + H2O(l) + Na+(aq) + CH3COO-(aq) where s=solid, l=liquid, g=gas, aq=aqueous or in a water solution. In other words, after the two compounds combine ...


8

If one would move his hands while washing hands with raw water, would that help in getting rid of bacteria and germs? Yes. In fact it can reduce the bacteria on your hands by 77%. This is a significant decrease in bacteria and other contaminants. The primary action responsible for this is the mechanical scrubbing, along with the flowing water to carry ...


8

If brushing your teeth with traces of acid in your mouth really is dangerous, shouldn't we hear about it without mentioning of vomit? Yes, and we do (from Colgate): You should know, however, that brushing your teeth after eating can sometimes affect your tooth enamel. According to the Mayo Clinic, if you've consumed anything acidic, you should avoid ...


8

Direct evidence of actual viral disease transmission via fomites (the medical term for inanimate surfaces) is unfortunately notoriously difficult to produce, according to a 2007 review: direct experimental evidence of viral transmission via fomite has been very difficult to generate due to a variety of uncontrollable variables and the unpredictability of ...


7

This World Health Orgainization report explores silver as a water disinfectant. It kills a wide variety of bacteria, and fungi without leaving a residue or many chemicals in the water. Silver has been known to have antibacterial properties since Roman times, however, the increased use of nanosilver in a range of (as yet largely) ex perimental drinking-...


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