169

Euler did write this, but it was not a mistake! Euler's statement was correct under his own definition of the notation that he was using. I looked at the PDF version of Elements of Algebra linked to in SCappella's answer. Reading Section I, Chapter XIII, I found that Euler wrote that most numbers have two square roots, which matches the definition of the ...


116

Genetic science in Mahabharata Prime Minister Modi claimed that genetic science and plastic surgery existed in Ancient India. source: “We all read about Karna in the Mahabharata. If we think a little more, we realise that the Mahabharata says Karna was not born from his mother’s womb. This means that genetic science was present at that time. That is why ...


65

First let me just give you a philosophical overview as to why the question is disingenuous and you are barking up the wrong tree. You ask: Was Richard Leakey correct, did they toss out the fossil, or the theories on early man? No, he was not. Of course, that is because he was taken out of context in that selective quote (a favorite creationist tactic). ...


63

All of this is (mostly) true. Ciphers and anagrams in 17th century scientific writing Using anagrams and ciphers was a frequently used way to safeguard inventions and discoveries against intellectual theft in the seventeenth and eighteenth century. An early example can be found in a letter dated December 11, 1610 from Galileo Galilei to Johannes Kepler. The ...


39

TL;DR: Alexander Graham Bell was concerned with fossil fuels running out, but not climate change per se. Bell was concerned about the inevitable depletion of fossil fuels — “What shall we do when we have no more coal and oil?” So in a 1917 article for National Geographic Magazine, he urged the development of renewable ethanol fuel from agricultural waste, ...


34

[I edited this answer in response to the helpful comments in the chats. Thanks to everyone for their feedback!] 0. Introduction TLDR: No, none of the order of evaluation conventions changed since the 1600s. As detailed below, the only change during this period was to switch from "overbar" to parentheses to denote grouping. Writers sometimes deviated from ...


26

Yes, Patrick Matthew recognized and published the basics of evolution by natural selection prior to Darwin. It is also well-known that Alfred Russell Wallace independently developed the same theory apart from, but at the same time, as Darwin. Neither Matthew nor Wallace, however, devoted a lifetime to researching and publishing a ground-breaking, full ...


24

Euler did argue that √-2 √-3 = √6. Whether this is a mistake depends a lot on context. This appears in Euler's 1770 publication Elements of Algebra in Section I., Chapter XIII. (pdf link). Moreover, as √a multiplied by √b makes √ab, we shall have √6 for the value of √-2 multiplied by √-3; and √4, or 2, for the value of the product of √-1 by √-4. Thus ...


18

Summary: I'd rate the first quote you gave 95% accurate, while the 2nd one only 5% or so, mainly because the bulk of McIntyre and McKitrick (MM henceforth) claims/attacks from their paper(s) turned out to be unfounded, while the small part of their criticism that was factual (and resulted in corrigendum from Mann et al.) turned out inconsequential with ...


14

There's low probability that Marić made a significant contribution to Einstein's Theory of Relativity, let alone that she co-authored it with him. From Einstein from 'B' to 'Z' by John Stachel: In summary, the letters to Marić show Einstein referring to his studies, his ideas, his work on the electrodynamics of moving bodies over a dozen times (and we may ...


13

Was a misplaced decimal point responsible for the popular belief that spinach has a lot of iron? No. It was an interpretation error of von Wolff's findings, of about a factor of ten. What happened was that von Wolff (correctly) measured the iron content of dried spinach, but his numbers were interpreted as the iron content of fresh spinach (which happens ...


12

Your own article cites its source, which in similar form is a collection of "interesting" outcomes of machine learning experiments. The relevant portion is here: when MIT Lincoln Labs evaluated GenProg on a buggy sorting program, researchers created tests that measured whether the numbers output by the sorting algorithm were in sorted order. However, ...


11

The answer to the title question is no for the simple reason that the (fuzzy, inconsistent) rules mentioned in Lennes's 1917 note are still in wide use today. I think it's important to distinguish between elementary-school arithmetic notation and the notation used by real mathematicians, which is also used in grade-school algebra and calculus and which I'll ...


10

1) Did Galileo teach sciencific theories which were not yet proven? The Jesuit Cardinal Robert Bellarmine thought that there was not sufficient proof in his time. He wrote, in his 12 April 1615 letter to the Carmelite priest Fr. Foscarini* (my emphases): I say that if there were a true demonstration that the sun is at the center of the world and the ...


9

1) Was Ignaz Phillip Semmelweis the first to identify or a pioneer in identifying, the importance of hygiene in these cases? A. Ignaz Semmelweis was not the first to emphasize the significance of hand decontamination but he was the first from Europe who demonstrated the importance through statistical numbers. There were others prior to him such as Antoine ...


9

Probably not Summary I couldn't find a reliable source that could explicitly verify or debunk the claim, but available evidence paints a picture of an OJ-loving Feynman. The clip is part of a documentary that doesn't mention Linus Pauling whatsoever. Available evidence shows that Feynman was respectful towards Pauling which doesn't fit the narrative that ...


7

Mostly true. 1) Did Galileo teach scientific theories which were not yet proven? Indeed. In 1632 Galileo published "Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems". In it he presented a fictional dialogue between proponents of heliocentrism and geocentrism. However, he was merely repeating the same inconclusive or false arguments that had been debunked or ...


6

The source is Bell's great-grandson Edwin S. Grosvenor who coauthored the 1997 book Alexander Graham Bell: The Life and Times of the Man who Invented the Telephone where on page 275 he quotes Bell as writing: While we would lose some of the sun's heat, we would gain some of the earth's heat which is normally radiated into space. ... I am inclined to ...


6

Isotopes of 7 elements could be found in small amounts 26,000 years after use of nuclear weapons, so it would be pretty easy to figure out if they were used in pre-historic Pennsylvania. Furthermore, radon is produced by decaying uranium or thorium, which just means that it's a good place to mine for large amounts of uranium (such as eastern Pennsylvania) ...


5

In short: The claim mentioned above is not based on a real historically traceable incidence. As revealed by Yisela's excellent inquiry from W. Starbuck, mentioned above in a comment, the argument stems from "Change: Principles of Problem Formation and Problem Resolution”, authored by Watzlawick, Weakland, and Fisch. The story appears near the top of ...


4

This claim originally comes from Diogenes Laërtius, a biographer of ancient Greek philosophers, who wrote (Lives of the Philosophers (Philosophoi Biol), book I # 27): [Thales] is said to have discovered the seasons of the year and divided it into 365 days (You can read the entire bio here.) A number of people besides Kenny repeat this assertion ...


4

There's a paper in trying to answer this question On the “Missing Letter” to Lattes and the Nobel Prize in Physics, but the existence of this letter is still unproved. We can also conclude that there is no longer controversy regarding Bohr and Lattes, at least according to the Bohr Archives, but from the evidences exposed, the possibility of a ...


4

Actually The English Wikipedia has a great page about J. C. Bose. Bose went to London on a lecture tour in 1896 and met Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi, who had been developing a radio wave wireless telegraphy system for over a year and was trying to market it to the British post service. In an interview, Bose expressed his disinterest in commercial ...


4

5.The speed of light has been accurately mentioned in Rigveda The speed of light is not mentioned in the Rig Veda. Instead, as stated in footnote b of page 132 of Rig-Veda-sanhita (1850) Sayana says, that, according to the Smriti, the sun moves 2,202 yojanas in half a twinkle of the eye. So, a commentary by Sayana on a traditional commentary ...


2

Kamil's answer answers the question correctly, but ends with a suggestion that you ask about why this happened on a different SE. This answer will explain how that outcome can easily be caused by a silly mistake. This kind of machine learning algorithm is based on genetic algorithms, which use a fitness function to describe how good a result is. The ...


2

This story is surprisingly easy to completely disprove, because devotion to Aristotle's worldview was banned at the University of Paris in thirteenth century. Condemnations of 1210–1277 The Condemnation of 1210 was issued by the provincial synod of Sens, which included the Bishop of Paris as a member (at the time Peter of Nemours). The writings of a ...


2

Ridley is cherry-picking to an enormous extent, such that even if his statements are technically true they are without meaning. Analysis of fibrous materials using X-ray crystallography did indeed contribute to the study of DNA structure, and the techniques may well have been used in the wool industry. However those studies themselves were dependent on ...


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