There are vastly many more 40-move chess games than atoms in the visible universe, which we will prove below. But first, some clarification:
Earlier posts mention the Shannon number, which is his estimate for the game-tree complexity of chess (i.e., the number of possible games). Shannon gave the estimate 10120 as a remark in "Programming a Computer for ...
For all the claims of Lou Zocchi, there's only one way to be sure - science! i.e. Do the experiment and check if his dice are truly more random than his competitors.
How do you do the experiment? Delta's D&D HotSpot is a blog written by a math teacher, and he wrote an article about how to apply Pearson's chi-squared hypothesis testing to this problem.
Ah, good old Zeljko Ranogajec. He has so secretive and has so many rumours of his super-human abilities flying about, he's like the Keyser Söze of the gambling world!
Keno has a growing jackpot, where a portion of the losses from previous players accumulate.
The expected return (in the statistical sense of "expected") of a ticket depends on the size of the ...
Yes, it is the shortest stalemate ever found.
It was discovered by Sam Lloyd. [Ref]
Frederick Rhine discovered a similar stalemate, also in 10 moves: 1.d4 c5 2.dxc5 f6 3.Qxd7+ Kf7 4.Qxd8 Bf5 5.Qxb8 h5 6.Qxa8 Rh6 7.Qxb7 a6 8.Qxa6 Bh7 9.h4 Kg6 10.Qe6. [Ref]
Lloyd's contribution continues to be quoted on many sites maintained by experts as the shortest ...
Edit 2019-01: answering this question boils down to knowing how many possible ways there are to play 40 move games of chess and how many atoms there are in the universe. The latter is known, and all of these answers ultimately cite chess experts, only varying in their interpretation of their figures.
I like the answer from Douglas S. Stones the most as it ...
Dealing with the question of games (Yamikuronue has dealt with Herodotus thoroughly already) clearly we have no way of knowing who played games like Touch (what North Americans call Tag) in the prehistoric past. Neanderthals may well have done. But I think the sense of the question involves games with props, i.e. specially designed materials. A good source ...
The accepted answer is wrong, due to the fallacy of accepting a link to a another website as the truth, rather than actually doing the math.
Particularly, the site http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Chess.html confused the number of positions, with the number of 40-move games.
Though mathworld says
The number of possible games of 40 moves or less P(40) ...
According to Superhuman AI for heads-up no-limit poker: Libratus beats top professionals Science 26 Jan 2018:
Vol. 359, Issue 6374, pp. 418-424, Head-Up No Limit (HUNL) Texas Hold'Em
has 10^161 decision points (24)
The footnote explains:
The version of HUNL that we refer to, which is used in the Annual Computer Poker Competition, allows bets in ...
After some better searching I found this:
The Shannon number
Allis also estimated the game-tree
complexity to be at least 10^123,
"based on an average branching factor
of 35 and an average game length of
80". As a comparison, the number of
atoms in the observable universe, to
which it is often compared, is
estimated to be between 4×10^79 ...
She makes the same claim in her book, Reality is Broken: Why Games Make Us Better and How They Can Change the World. There, she gives a reference:
Rawlison, George trans., with Henry Rawlison and J. G Wilkinson. The History of Herodotus: A New English Version (New York: D. Appleton, 1861), 182 http://www.archive.org/stream/historyofherodot01herouoft#page/...
I think I found the person responsible for this quote, saying something very similar a decade later. Faber-Castell is a pencil business based in Germany, owned by a single aristocratic family.
Shades of grey, and other hues, put lead in pencil sales (The Australian)
It all adds up to a pretty picture for Andreas Wilhelm von
Faber-Castell, the managing ...
The thesis GAMIFICATION AND THE CREATION OF ACADEMIC WRITER’S IDENTITY says
The history of the term gamification is not necessarily a clear one. According to Burke; Nick Pelling coined the word “gamification” in 2002 for his new consulting business. Pelling defined the word as “applying game-like accelerated user interface design to make electronic ...
According to wikipedia, which is extensively sourced on this topic (although I haven't checked any of them myself for reliability), says
The earliest Japanese "sansukumi-ken" game was known as "mushi-ken" (虫拳), which was imported directly from China. In "Mushi-ken" the "frog" (represented by the thumb) is superseded by the "slug" (represented by the ...