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You'll find some information in the Wikipedia article "Attention span". But really, why do you think that "concentration" is an on/off state of mind? Some people can read a book and barely remember that they've even read it (if it's uninteresting); someone playing a computer game can be "on" for hours. If "concentration" were an on/off state, then there ...


4

This is slightly off the wall, but one particular study looks at the effect of music on Netball players. But I think it translates across, especially with the swimming comparison, because it's about psychological state called "flow". Their conclusion was: "Interventions comprising self-selected music and imagery can enhance athletic performance by ...


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More recent research suggest that white noise has a moderate impact on improving attention in inattentive children: The effects of background white noise on memory performance in inattentive school children Listen to the Noise: Noise is Beneficial for Cognitive Performance in ADHD


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Evidence regarding the use of highlighting for benefit in learning is mixed per Carole L. Yue et.al. in 2014 and under some conditions, highlighting can be a beneficial study strategy for learning. Quoting Andy DeSoto's answer in 2012, "it might make sense to only use highlighting (or colors, fonts, etc.) to highlight key points, etc.; much like what we ...


1

Here is an article with a summary and links to various research into student learning attention factors while learning. https://www.opencolleges.edu.au/informed/features/30-tricks-for-capturing-students-attention/ Not quite the same as how long to study for - but relevant. If the objective is to improve learning outcomes, there are several things that can ...


1

According to focus@will, the answer is that it depends on the music in question. f@w is a music service claiming to use neuroscience to sequence their music to enhance concentration: f@w has published a white paper[pdf] on their first experiment in 2013, showing a 12% increase in beta and theta frequencies at P3 and P4 when listening to f@w-designed music ...


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