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Keep in mind the way they're defining "white noise" in the scientific american article you provided is different from what you link to on wikipedia. The SA definition is more in terms of ambient noise (e.g., traffic, low-level talking, a/c running, etc.) while white noise proper is a signal with a VERY specific acoustical pattern. It seems that the SA ...


10

You'll find some information in the Wikipedia article "Attention span". But really, why do you think that "concentration" is an on/off state of mind? Some people can read a book and barely remember that they've even read it (if it's uninteresting); someone playing a computer game can be "on" for hours. If "concentration" were an on/off state, then there ...


2

More recent research suggest that white noise has a moderate impact on improving attention in inattentive children: The effects of background white noise on memory performance in inattentive school children Listen to the Noise: Noise is Beneficial for Cognitive Performance in ADHD


2

This is slightly off the wall, but one particular study looks at the effect of music on Netball players. But I think it translates across, especially with the swimming comparison, because it's about psychological state called "flow". Their conclusion was: "Interventions comprising self-selected music and imagery can enhance athletic performance by ...


2

Evidence regarding the use of highlighting for benefit in learning is mixed per Carole L. Yue et.al. in 2014 and under some conditions, highlighting can be a beneficial study strategy for learning. Quoting Andy DeSoto's answer in 2012, "it might make sense to only use highlighting (or colors, fonts, etc.) to highlight key points, etc.; much like what we ...


1

Here is an article with a summary and links to various research into student learning attention factors while learning. https://www.opencolleges.edu.au/informed/features/30-tricks-for-capturing-students-attention/ Not quite the same as how long to study for - but relevant. If the objective is to improve learning outcomes, there are several things that can ...


1

According to focus@will, the answer is that it depends on the music in question. f@w is a music service claiming to use neuroscience to sequence their music to enhance concentration: f@w has published a white paper[pdf] on their first experiment in 2013, showing a 12% increase in beta and theta frequencies at P3 and P4 when listening to f@w-designed music ...


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