"Were children safer in the good old days?"
We have four definition problems here:
What age are included when talking about "children"?
What risks are included and excluded in "safe"?
When were the "good old days"?
What geographic regions are included? Just the US? UK? Western-style cultures? The globe?
Interpretation #1: Children under 5 years, all ...
The pamphlet is/was real; the claim "a guide to welfare" is false
The pamphlet is/was real and caused a stir in the Swedish news, for example: Aftonbladet (in Swedish)
The pamphlet was published on Socialstyrelsens website on this link (in Swedish), but was quickly retracted (in Swedish) when the criticism poured in. The main objections were that the ...
For completeness, here is the full 4 page pamphlet together with an English translation:
Information to you who are married to a child
Child marriage is illegal in Sweden
In Sweden it is illegal to marry anyone under the age of 18.
There are many reasons for this.
Children have a right to be children and to not have the
What the writings by Sullins say
Invisible Victims: Delayed Onset Depression among Adults with Same-Sex Parents is available online:
Retrospective questions at Waves III and IV asked about adult mistreatment during childhood, including whether a parent or caregiver had “slapped, hit or kicked you,” said “things that hurt your feelings or made you feel ...
We cannot be sure exactly what happened 7 centuries ago; we only have the one account. However something akin to this experiment did occur, albeit without the controlled conditions. In Romania during Communism thousands of children were consigned to orphanages where they were grossly neglected (warning: the linked article contains distressing details).
Summary: The survey this article was based on was biased, poorly designed and poorly implemented. The conclusions cannot be trusted.
This study was examined by Orac who has been "checking in with and covering periodically ever since its inception in 2012, when antivaxers were fundraising for it."
The study has had a history of being retracted:
Senator John W. Daniel of Virginia said 03 February 1899 of colonial Philippines:
this brew - mixed races, Chinese, Malay, Negritos— anybody who has come along in three hundred years, in all their concatenations and colors; and the travelers who have been there tell us and have written in the books that they are not only of all hues and colors, but ...
Wikipedia article on decidious teeth references the picture from Gray's Anatomy.
Google search also gives some references.
Scheme on Colgate professional.
Article in dentist Rick Wilsond blog featuring X-Ray picture from 9 year old:
And also child's skull from Hunterian Museum in London:
Okay I think it's enough for this answer.
So, I assume there're no ...
Reasons for switching?
Generally today, in the western world, left-handed people are equally accepted as right-handed people and should not experience any major drawbacks. Today, a child can easily work with the left hand. Thanks to some tools such as scissors, writing pads and pens for left-handed no problems are expected. If a child does have bad deal, ...
Co-sleeping is unsafe, particularly when compared to placing a child into a suitable cot / crib. Most of this risk comes from the bed and bedding not being suitable for infants, but suffocation by overlying is also a significant risk.
The only safe place for an infant to sleep is on its back in a crib/bed that meets relevant standards.
Yes, a child's immune system develops and improves over time. However, the idea that the immune system can be "overwhelmed" by vaccinations is specious.
An infant has both passively acquired and adaptive immune responses.
Our immune system helps protect us from pathogens with its multiple layers of varying purpose and specificity. The immune system ...
There are multiple news outlets reporting ISIS has beheaded children quoting the same source, Mark Arabo, and there is one source (catholic.org) that shows disturbing 'evidence' that seems to be misattributed, actually stemming from Syria. There is reason to be skeptical, as the recent news about the call for female genital mutilation by ISIS and some other ...
To come up with the emission per child, the original source Reproduction and the carbon legacies of individuals Global Environmental Change Volume 19, Issue 1, February 2009, pages 14-20, is considering an infinite series.
In other words, having one child results in all the lifetime emission of said child, plus all that child's descendants' emissions. ...
Not directly related to your source(s), but see the article pit of despair on Wikipedia. Warning, the article and the experiment itself can be rather disturbing.
Harlow's first experiments involved isolating a monkey in a cage surrounded by steel walls with a small one-way mirror, so the experimenters could look in, but the monkey could not look out. The ...
According to this meta review the answer is a big, resounding no. Actually – it increases criminality.
Petrosino and colleagues conducted a meta-analysis review of Scared Straight programs with the most rigorous methodological standards to date.
Meta-analysis results show the scared straight-type intervention increases the odds of offending ...
In reviewing the literature initially:
Searches of Scholar for these phrases:
'physiological effects driving'
'driving + ovaries'
...all returned no relevant studies discussing any effect of this kind, suggesting that if this kind of phenomenon has occurred, no one has thought it significant enough to ...
The article from which this claim stems has multiple issues. The most glaring is that even though its subtitle is "The 30 Million Word Gap by Age 3", the body of the article never actually makes this claim, instead claiming that there is a 32 million gap by age 4.
The authors of the article gathered data on how many words per hour a child heard through ...
In addition to the other answers I would like to clarify that Salimbene indeed described an experiment in which the children died of social isolation. Here is the original excerpt1:
Secunda eius superstitio fuit quia voluit experiri, cuiusmodi linguam et loquelam haberent pueri, cum adolevissent, si cum nemine loquerentur. Et ideo precepit baiulis et ...
Maybe but very unlikely as that estimate is dependent upon the what data you are using to make the estimate. Based upon newer data that number is likely invalid though.
The United States Census Bureau can help us in answering this question as they provide a break out of data on same-sex couples. In the 2010 ACS Brief on Same-sex couple households reported ...
According to the World Health Organization:
More than two thirds (70%) of all malaria deaths occur in this age group. In 2015, about 305,000 African children died before their fifth birthdays.
This data was used by an African organization africacheck.org when trying to estimate the number of malaria deaths in children under 5 in Africa:
Then, using a ...
Literally forces them? probably No. Compels them by threats of expulsion from school, lower grades or stigmatisation - Probably Yes.
Each September the cotton harvest begins. Many rural schools are closed down by government officials as children, some as young as nine, are forced to pick cotton by hand for up to three months in order to fill the shortfall ...
I've found a published journal titled "Educational Leadership" that thoroughly explores with supportive data of the arguments for and against homework, available here: http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/mar07/vol64/num06/The-Case-For-and-Against-Homework.aspx
Based on the above reference, academic improvement with assigned homework has ...
Responding to this question is a bit complicated as it requires a degree of inferring the intent of the original author of the response to the article. Based upon this passage from the author:
Children are not ready for traditional team sports until perhaps the
last year of primary school at best. What he is pleased to call an
"all must have prizes" ...
Do nightlights during childhood cause myopia later in life?
No, probably not.
This was actually pretty interesting, it's like a go to example of confounding.
So it was originally found that the amount of light correlated with myopia.
Myopia and ambient lighting at night (pdf)
The prevalence of myopia and high
myopia during childhood was strongly
The specific notable claim appears to be the wikipedia article, which I'll address.
While there is some good evidence that music may help adult insomniacs get better sleep, there does not appear to be good evidence that lullabies help children fall asleep. Certainly the evidence presented in the wikipedia article is lacking. All the same, I'm glad I ...
No, except for some subcommunities.
PLoS Biology published an article reviewing the evidence:
Paul DB, Spencer HG (2008) “It's Ok, We're Not Cousins by Blood”: The Cousin Marriage Controversy in Historical Perspective. PLoS Biol 6(12): e320. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060320
Until recently, good data on which to base an answer were lacking. As a result, ...
There is association between cow's milk consumption and height gain in children per three studies listed below. "Height gain in children may depend not only on the calcium in cow milk but also on some of its bioactive components".
Per a 2004 study 'Effect of cow milk consumption on longitudinal height gain in children' by Tomoo Okada, researchers observed a ...
There is little limited research on if/how Gripe Water works.
This literature review from 2000 looks at the evidence of how Gripe Water deals with colic (which may or may not be caused by intestinal discomfort):
Blumenthal, I (April 2000). "The Gripe Water Story". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 93 (4): 172–174. PMC 1297971. PMID 10844880.
All of this answer is based on what I found on a recent review on the subject of alcohol and breastfeeding Haastrup, M. B., Pottegård, A. & Damkier, P. Alcohol and Breastfeeding. Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 114, 168–173 (2014).
First of all, it is interesting to address a common myth that alcohol ingestion can increase milk production and secretion....
In direct reply to the question, the study on which the comment seems to be based looked at children in Rumanian orphanages and does not provide any evidence to support the claim.
But: The concern is not completely made up and there seems to be some debate in scientific literature whether early childcare may be correlated with (very slightly) reduced ...