Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a non-flavonoid polyphenol present in grapes and red wine. Per Joao Tomé-Carneiro et.al in 2013, Resveratrol (RES) exerts cardioprotective benefits through the improvement of inflammatory markers, atherogenic profile, glucose metabolism and endothelial function according to the clinical trials conducted so far. These effects have been observed using both high and low doses of Resveratrol and both in healthy volunteers and medicated patients. However, the specific mechanisms by which this may occur are not yet clear. More trials are needed to confirm other possible effects and mechanisms. The promising neurodegenerative and cancer chemopreventive effects of Resveratrol in animal models have not been yet confirmed in humans.
A classical drawback for this molecule has been the poor bioavailability of RES despite the effects observed. A recurrent criticism used by some physicians/pharmacologists is that 'RES cannot exert benefits because it is rapidly metabolized and its presence in the bloodstream is negligible to justify any effect'. However, the effects exist. More research should focus on identifying the actual metabolites, signals or mediators responsible for these effects.
In addition, and to overcome the poor bioavailabilty of RES, intense research has been performed to enhance its bioavailability. After RES intake, the actual metabolite responsible (if any) for the effects exerted is still unknown. The specific activity associated to known metabolites has been scarcely investigated.
The objective of using high doses of RES with a pharmacological use is still unclear. Safety concerns, easy and cheap commercial availability of the molecule, and lack of added value for pharmaceutical companies make the future of RES, as a possible pharmaceutical multitarget drug, rather obscure.