Lots of articles and books claim from moderate (help reduce inflammation) to miraculous (cure or completely eliminate symptoms of autoimmune disorders) claims about doing strict diets that avoid specific types of food. Some of them also claim things like inflammation-causing foods being the spark that trigger chronic inflammatory medical conditions such us Hashimoto disease or progressive multiple sclerosis, (see e.g. The Wahls Protocol or The Top 13 Causes of Inflammation: And How to Treat It Naturally, but there are countless others). One of the most repeated statements is that they create a "leaky gut", described as:
Leaky gut, or intestinal hyperpermeability, is a phenomenon that occurs when the tight junctions of the intestinal wall become loose, allowing harmful substances to enter the bloodstream.
Gluten is probably the most commonly and intensely demonized for causing leaky gut, but also sugar and certain pesticides. Note that in the same Healthline article linked above it is stated that
Leaky gut syndrome remains a bit of a medical mystery, and medical professionals are still trying to determine exactly what causes it.
Also, often these articles or videos throw in some foods increasing or nourishing some bad bacteria in the microbiome into the causes.
I have two questions:
- Is there any evidence that certain foods like gluten trigger inflammation in humans?
- Is there any medical study done on patients with inflammatory and autoimmune conditions that shows that patients can improve their symptoms by avoiding certain pro-inflammatory foods?