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This idea was discussed in the Washington Times (no longer available at the original site: on archive.org.

The article discusses whether SARS-CoV-2 (the virus which causes COVID-19) could have been made in a Chinese bio-weapon lab:

Dany Shoham, a former Israeli military intelligence officer who has studied Chinese biological warfare, said the institute is linked to Beijing’s covert bio-weapons program.

...

Coronaviruses [particularly SARS] have been studied in the institute and are probably held therein,” Mr. Shoham said. “SARS is included within the Chinese BW program, at large, and is dealt with in several pertinent facilities.”

It is not known whether the institute’s coronaviruses are specifically included in China’s biological weapons program but it is possible, he said.

Asked whether the new coronavirus may have leaked, Mr. Shoham said: “In principle, outward virus infiltration might take place either as leakage or as an indoor unnoticed infection of a person that normally went out of the concerned facility. This could have been the case with the Wuhan Institute of Virology, but so far there isn’t evidence or indication for such incident.”

Was SARS-CoV-2 made in a Chinese lab?


The claim still lives on in various forms:

Creator Of US BioWeapons Act Says Coronavirus Is A Bio Weapon

Or:

Yes, the Virus Came from Wuhan

03/17/2020

Two Chinese scholars suggested that the virus came from bats kept in two Wuhan research centers. Their paper was promptly censored, but the CCP should explain to the world what exactly happened there.

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    The original claim might benefit from a bit of quoting here. It is of fundamental difference whether a lab "made" an infectious agent or whether it 'just' "worked on it", inadvertently spreading it (examples would be various diseases, like anthrax, the last case of smallpox etc). I am pretty sure 'they' did not 'make' it, but it is not certain whether they worked on something like this, or whether if they did some ran wild into the wild from there. 'Did they engineer it' or 'are they the source' needs differentiation,. Jan 29 '20 at 13:44
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    The original article has now vanished. (Retracted?)
    – Oddthinking
    Mar 22 '20 at 22:41
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    @Oddthinking the article is back with an editorial note: "Editor’s note (March 25, 2020): Since this story ran, scientists outside of China have had a chance to study the SARS-CoV-2 virus. They concluded it does not show signs of having been manufactured or purposefully manipulated in a lab, though the exact origin remains murky and experts debate whether it may have leaked from a Chinese lab that was studying it." washingtontimes.com/news/2020/jan/26/… and two links to more recent scientific articles.
    – DavePhD
    Apr 15 '20 at 14:42
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    As the WHO has made a visit to Wuhan, and released its findings for that visit, I think “undergoing investigation”, and “not notable” are no longer applicable. Feb 25 at 1:57
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    I agree with @AndrewGrimm, I'm not sure how this isn't notable at this point since this is the prevailing alternative theory to zoonotic spillover.
    – rjzii
    May 4 at 13:27
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Biological and genetic analysis of the virus suggests that the virus evolved naturally, i.e. was not "made in a Chinese lab".

However, as Lang Lang's answer notes, it is arguably premature to say whether the virus passed to humans

  1. directly from another animal species, or
  2. via a (presumably accidental) release of a specimen from the Wuhan Institute of Virology or a related lab.

Hypothesis 1 is more parsimonious, and the virus was tied to the wild animal trade via the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market at a fairly early stage (December 10) (Huang et al. 2020. However, the earliest confirmed case (December 1) has not been linked to the market (ibid.). The information we have is thus inconclusive with respect to Hypothesis 1. Both Hypotheses 1 and 2 are being considered.

For context, animal contact is a more common source of outbreaks than lab accidents (think SARS, AIDS, Ebola, etc.). Yet lab outbreaks are not unheard of, either. Most famously, the pandemic flu strain of 1977-78 was found to be the same as that of 1949-50, suggesting it was the result of laboratory infection from a cryogenically preserved sample.

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    This is probably not wrong (claim: "made"), but a premature answer. Biolabs can spread diseases, they did so frequently (example). It is too early to tell? Jan 29 '20 at 13:40
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    Yeah I'm gonna agree with this. The whole claim boils down to one Israeli military officer saying it could have happened with literally no evidence to back it up. He has no proof but the website is treating it as fact. If you visit the WT page on Dany Shoham (washingtontimes.com/topics/dany-shoham) there are two articles where he's ever been mentioned as well.
    – DenisS
    Jan 29 '20 at 15:51
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    @LаngLаngС it's not premature to call it an unwarranted conspiracy theory.
    – Colin
    Jan 29 '20 at 16:58
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    No. Exactly not. The market seems to be at best a later transmission hub. Please re-read my answer for links to sources that do call that hypothesis into question. Jan 29 '20 at 17:16
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    Exactly, to the parts in bold. And neither is the opposite. There is just no evidence to tie it reliably to anything. The researchers at best speculate as for now. The article from WT doesn't present the claim OP makes here; as of now still in title and body of question. That's a pity. The MERS outbreak is just to hi-light that it's too early to tell. SARS 'did break out' from such (Chinese) facilities, repeatedly. That it is 'not likely' (BSL4) doesn't mean 'impossible'. We want evidence, and have none. Jan 29 '20 at 19:00
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It is still too early to definitively tell. We do not know its origin for sure.

We have neither any hard evidence for nor anything good against this claim. What we do have is a few plausibility hypothesis to weigh against each other. And expert opinions gauging them.

With the lab-origin theory steadily gaining more ground and those figures still defending the purely natural zoonosis theory becoming ever more clear as being tainted with strongest conflicts of interest.

Calling the lab origin hypothesis 'a conspiracy theory' is callous and at least premature.

[…] suppression of the lab leak theory was not based on any clear evaluation of the science. Indeed, it happened despite no good counter-evidence for the alternative: natural spillover from animals to humans. Instead the lab leak theory sank under the weight of a concerted campaign by heavily conflicted scientists, leading to a “year of biased, failed reporting” by science journalists and journals.

— Fiona Godlee: "Covid 19: We need a full open independent investigation into its origins", BMJ 2021;374:n1721 doi

It never was per se a 'conspiracy theory', but a legitimate concern that even Shi Zhengli director of the Wuhan Institute of Virology shared early on:

… Shi Zhengli, was 'muzzled' from revealing her findings, which has prompted fears of a cover-up by the Chinese authorities. […]

She said:

"I had never expected this kind of thing to happen in Wuhan, in central China. I remember thinking 'could they have come from our lab?'"

– Jane Lavender: "'Bat Woman' scientist who could cure coronavirus has chilling warning for the future", Mirror, 14:21, 16 Apr 2020.

If we were to apply a certain razor heuristic to evaluate both, the lab origin hypothesis is certainly the more parsimonious explanation, certainly by May 2021.

1. First of all: While the question 'as is' misrepresents the origin of the claim:

The Washington Times article just says this:

Coronavirus may have originated in lab linked to China's biowarfare program

That does not say 'the lab made this'! It also does not say that this is a lab developing bio-weapons. The article just states that

the institute is linked to Beijing’s covert bio-weapons program. What seems to be known now via genomic sequencing is:

Developing a vaccine for example — whether for 'normal' viral diseases or even for something someone might want to try as a bio-weapon — is not the same as 'making' a weaponised virus. Especially not 'constructing it artificially' or even breeding it up to increased virulence…

2. Second, we have limited knowledge about this, and that state is likely to continue for quite some time.

Given what’s known about the pace at which viral genomes mutate, if nCoV had been circulating in humans since significantly before the first case was reported on Dec. 8, the 24 genomes would differ more. Applying ballpark rates of viral evolution, Rambaut estimates that the Adam (or Eve) virus from which all others are descended first appeared no earlier than Oct. 30, 2019, and no later than Nov. 29.

The progenitor virus itself was almost certainly one that circulates harmlessly in bats (as SARS does) but has an “intermediate reservoir” in one or more animals that come into contact with people, Andersen said. Presumably, that reservoir is one of the species of animals at the Wuhan market thought to be ground zero for the outbreak. The ancestor of 2019-nCoV existed in that species for some unknown time, never infecting people, until by chance a single virus acquired a mutation that made it capable of jumping into and infecting humans.

The genome sequences suggest that was a one-time-only jump. “The genomes [from the 24 samples] are very uniform,” Andersen said. “If there had been multiple introductions,” including from many different animals, “there would be more genomic diversity. This was a single introduction.”
— Sharon Begley: "DNA sleuths read the coronavirus genome, tracing its origins and looking for dangerous mutations", StatNews, Jan 24, 2020

Whether the Chinese lab in that region is linked to any bio weapons programme is of course a boon for any conspiracy theory. But this is wholly irrelevant to whether the lab is the source of that outbreak now. Even if there are zero links to 'the military': a lab that studies viruses can leak those viruses.

And that such leak might have occurred is deemed as plausible as the wholesome naturally infected via animal reservoir on the market place or in kitchen.

Conveniently, the Wuhan National Biosafety Laboratory in the centre of the disease outbreak is officially equipped to handle the virus, 'safely':

— Nicoletta Lanese: "Only one lab in China can safely handle the new coronavirus", Live Science, 22 Jan 2020.

Other experts other than the source quoted in the Washington Times article were also not overly excited about that lab:

But worries surround the Chinese lab, too. The SARS virus has escaped from high-level containment facilities in Beijing multiple times, notes Richard Ebright, a molecular biologist at Rutgers University in Piscataway, New Jersey. Tim Trevan, founder of CHROME Biosafety and Biosecurity Consulting in Damascus, Maryland, says that an open culture is important to keeping BSL-4 labs safe, and he questions how easy this will be in China, where society emphasizes hierarchy. “Diversity of viewpoint, flat structures where everyone feels free to speak up and openness of information are important,” he says.

The plan to expand into a network heightens such concerns. One BSL-4 lab in Harbin is already awaiting accreditation; the next two are expected to be in Beijing and Kunming, the latter focused on using monkey models to study disease.

Lina says that China’s size justifies this scale, and that the opportunity to combine BSL-4 research with an abundance of research monkeys — Chinese researchers face less red tape than those in the West when it comes to research on primates — could be powerful. “If you want to test vaccines or antivirals, you need a non-human primate model,” says Lina.

But Ebright is not convinced of the need for more than one BSL-4 lab in mainland China. He suspects that the expansion there is a reaction to the networks in the United States and Europe, which he says are also unwarranted. He adds that governments will assume that such excess capacity is for the potential development of bioweapons.

“These facilities are inherently dual use,” he says. The prospect of ramping up opportunities to inject monkeys with pathogens also worries, rather than excites, him: “They can run, they can scratch, they can bite.”

Trevan says China’s investment in a BSL-4 lab may, above all, be a way to prove to the world that the nation is competitive. “It is a big status symbol in biology,” he says, “whether it’s a need or not.”
— David Cyranoski: "Inside the Chinese lab poised to study world's most dangerous pathogens", Nature, 22 February 2017.

This is even echoed – again – in a recent newspaper article from April 14, 2020, this time in the Washington Post: "State Department cables warned of safety issues at Wuhan lab studying bat coronaviruses"

That it is a genuine zoonosis was the immediate reaction in expert circles. That it really is 'that' is nowhere confirmed as of now. We know that the Virus was originating from Wuhan, that at least one lab working in that field is there. And that the Wuhan National Laboratory is 'declared safe'.
Not more. Accidents and other incidents can happen, and did. Whether one did at this facility remains speculation, but one that is neither proven nor disproven at this time.

Stating anything as conclusive on this question seems to be another case of China coronavirus: Misinformation spreads online about origin and scale. So please, hold your horses.

— Kat Eschner: "We’re still not sure where the Wuhan coronavirus really came from. China’s wet markets don’t tell the whole story", PopSci, January 28, 2020.

The earliest cases now analysed say that out of 41 patients 13 had no link to the sea food/wet market.

Exposure history to the Huanan Seafood Wholesale market served as an important clue at the early stage, yet its value has decreased as more secondary and tertiary cases have appeared.

Many important questions remain unanswered, including its origin, extent, and duration of transmission in humans, ability to infect other animal hosts, and the spectrum and pathogenesis of human infections.
— Chen Wang: "A novel coronavirus outbreak of global health concern", The Lancet, Published: January 24, 2020.

So it's prudent to remember that initially the MERS virus was shown to originate in a patient zero from June 2012 in Arabia, while later analysis of blood samples traced it back to an unidentified hospital outbreak in Jordan in April 2012.

We have to wait for more information.


This information is still not forthcoming to a satisfactorily unequivocal degree. But the plot has thickened quite a bit recently, from numerous sides in favour and against, the most substantial ones are in favour for the lab-origin, and one is being summarised as:

In summary, there is a great deal of evidence to suggest that a laboratory accident at the Wuhan Institute of Virology is by far the most likely cause of the Corona pandemic. In this case, it would not be a "natural disaster" but a tragedy brought about by human beings themselves. There is a very real danger in declaring the question of the cause of the current pandemic "settled," as in the statement by some virologists. For policy makers, it makes an undeniable difference whether they are supporting wildlife markets or high-risk research with genetically engineered viruses and which should be banned worldwide. This question must be answered, otherwise corona and other virus species could develop a much greater potential danger potential, not only in the present, but also in the future.
— Roland Wiesendanger: "Ursprung der Coronavirus-Pandemie", Feb 2021 (https://www.researchgate.net/deref/http%3A%2F%2Fdx.doi.org%2F10.13140%2FRG.2.2.31754.80323)

After all, the most parsimonious theory about this is the lab escape, and not a purely naturally evolving zoonosis hypothesis. As for example Richard Ebright endorses now this overview article; summary:

After all, the more months pass without the natural emergence theory gaining a shred of supporting evidence, the less plausible it may seem. Perhaps the international community of virologists will come to be seen as a false and self-interested guide. The common sense perception that a pandemic breaking out in Wuhan might have something to do with a Wuhan lab cooking up novel viruses of maximal danger in unsafe conditions could eventually displace the ideological insistence that whatever Trump said can’t be true.
— Nicholad Wade: "Origin of Covid — Following the Clues Did people or nature open Pandora’s box at Wuhan?", Medium-com, April 30,2021.

As scientists with relevant expertise, we agree with the WHO director-general, the United States and 13 other countries, and the European Union that greater clarity about the origins of this pandemic is necessary and feasible to achieve. We must take hypotheses about both natural and laboratory spillovers seriously until we have sufficient data.

A proper investigation should be transparent, objective, data-driven, inclusive of broad expertise, subject to independent oversight, and responsibly managed to minimize the impact of conflicts of interest. Public health agencies and research laboratories alike need to open their records to the public. Investigators should document the veracity and provenance of data from which analyses are conducted and conclusions drawn, so that analyses are reproducible by independent experts.

Finally, in this time of unfortunate anti-Asian sentiment in some countries, we note that at the beginning of the pandemic, it was Chinese doctors, scientists, journalists, and citizens who shared with the world crucial information about the spread of the virus—often at great personal cost. We should show the same determination in promoting a dispassionate science-based discourse on this difficult but important issue.

— Jesse D. Bloom, Yujia Alina Chan et al.: "Investigate the origins of COVID-19", Science Vol. 372, Issue 6543, pp. 694, Science 14 May 2021. doi: 10.1126/science.abj0016

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    Actually, it's not "too early to tell," because they sequenced the genome. It's mutated, originally a bat virus, and not manufactured. Here's what a friend to studies and manipulates viruses (oncology applications) for a living said about that - "We do not build viruses like an erector set. By being able to sequence the entire genome, we can map where the virus was derived and what mutations allow for attachment/binding to human receptors on cells, in this case ACE2–an imperfect selection and in the case of SARS-COV-2 (coronavirus) over SARS-COV (SARS). (continued) Mar 25 '20 at 16:13
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    (continued) Additionally, lab engineering leaves traces. In order to insert a gene we need to use either a bacteria phage to snip the current genome and insert a new piece. This manipulation leaves traces in the same way if you snip two ends of a pipe and weld in a new section. This is further complicated by having an RNA virus. Finally, by passing other coronaviruses in nature on animal cell cultures (tissues) in vivo, we find that the mutations seen in SARS-COV-2 occur naturally." Mar 25 '20 at 16:13
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    ...... and from a scientific journal, talking about the sequenced genome - "..... This is strong evidence that SARS-CoV-2 is not the product of purposeful manipulation.” “The acquisition of polybasic cleavage sites by HA has also been observed after repeated passage in cell culture or through animals17.” nature.com/articles/s41591-020-0820-9 Mar 25 '20 at 16:14
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    @PoloHoleSet Please see the date of this premature question. I ref'd the same article elsewhere, weaknesses of that: bats or pangolin origin, we do not know it. "Made" can mean different things, you exclude 'made' with crispr etc tech, classical breeding is undetectable with this argument (ie strawman). Cultivate the virus in monkey or human cell lines for several years, infect cells with two coronas at the same time, place radiation near it, etc. All in all: it is still too early to tell the final story. Once I see a definite clue in either direction I'll update. Mar 25 '20 at 16:49
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    I'm not dinging you for that, fyi, just offering information that is relevant if anyone is reading your answer, today. They had a preliminary sequence of the genome from China in early January, and they sequenced the entire genome in France right around when you answered, but there's no way for you to get that info before it was published in the news. Mar 25 '20 at 17:06
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As has been stated, there is no evidence that such is the origin. From the other direction, the phylogeny of the virus seems to indicate that it diverged from an existing virus in bats. And, that ancestral virus is also ancestral to several other viruses in bats and humans, including SARS. Though SARS seems to have followed a path from bats, through civets, to humans. (Thanks to Colin in the comments for the extra information.)

So there is reason to at least not be surprised at the virus arising. It is not the first time, and it is not massively different to the previous times. It is also unsurprising that it originated in the neighborhood of Wuhan, since bats are eaten by people in this region on a fairly regular basis.

A disease crossing from another species to humans is not rare. Here is a list (from Wikipedia) of such diseases that have so crossed, and the animals associated. Note that many of these are associated with domestic animals. Humans have been getting illnesses from their livestock for a very long time. As well, from the various wild animals we come into close contact with. Rats and raccoons, for example, are in the list a few times.

So it is definitely not surprising to suppose this happened due to contact with bats. It is by no means proven, but it sure looks that way at the moment.

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    But if we're calculating the odds, we need to remember that SARS only arose naturally once, compared to the multiple confirmed times it has leaked out of labs.
    – IKM
    Mar 18 '20 at 2:08
  • @IKM Um... Every virus originates only once. However, many viruses have originated naturally, many similar to COVID-19. Your "odds" are meaningless.
    – puppetsock
    May 31 at 16:21
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China is a dictatorial state and very little or nothing transparent in many respects. However, it is certainly a fallacy accompanied by widespread ignorance of the cause to say that China is not transparent about the epidemiological character of its territory. Because numerous international bodies responsible for studying, controlling and responding to contagious threats, such as the CDC, USAID; MSF; IBP and NBBTP, work within Chinese territory with full freedom to exercise their research and actions. The CDC, in particular, works closely with the Chinese Government from 2012 to 2013. USAID, another renowned American institution and international projection, it also operates in conjunction with the Chinese Government. Furthermore, a coronavirus family was already deeply known for 17 years; in 2003, a virus very similar to that of COVID-19 also gave rise to a severe pandemic.

At this point, to say that China created the virus is a fallacy that falls to the ground according to the sources listed above; furthermore, to say that China tried to "hush" or deceive or hinder the world into knowing the existence of Covid-19 does not make any sense given the fact that it is impossible for them to hide something of this magnitude when there are so many international bodies dedicated to the epidemiological surveillance in Chinese territory. In addition, it is important to remember that other countries are not stupid, if China had done something intentional it would have been revealed by bodies like the CDC and the FBI. Namely, the FBI, in particular, has a long history of detecting countries or groups that promoted or facilitated epidemics, if it were the case of Covid-19, it would not be any challenge for them.

SARS-CoV-2 was not made in a lab (TWiV 664 excerpt) Theme of this excerpt: evidence that Sars-CoV-2 was not created in a laboratory and that it is impossible for China to have tried to somehow hide the epidemic (the spoiler I already gave before, it is not possible to create or hide due to the numerous international institutions working in China with the objective of tracking, studying and responding to new epidemics; of these, 4 are American)

Participating in the discussion: Vincent Racaniello, Rich Condit, Kathy Spindler and Brianne Barker. The first three are PhD professors in different areas of virology and at different universities, all in the USA; the last mentioned is still completing her PhD in an area of ​​virology and at a university also different from the other three. Links to verify the academic trajectory of the four are embedded in their respective names.

Note: This video above is a snippet of a longer 2-hour video that I'll link to below. This channel is specialized in virology and has been on YouTube for 11 years, all participants are professors with PhDs and PhDs in different fields of virology.

TWiV 664: TWiV is for the dogs

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    Have I understood your argument? When it comes to disease, China has acted as a friend and partner to the West, so they wouldn't do that. The FBI (who are limited to US-based investigations) have a handbook on epidemiology, so they certainly would have found out. Here is an unpeer-reviewed chat of 4 epidemiologists who present evidence. It doesn't seem like a very strong argument; crimes have been committed by trusted people and organisations before and not been detected.
    – Oddthinking
    Jul 11 at 20:05

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