From a Ewa Kotz's Master Thesis from the University of Amsterdam (page 12):
The reference given is pages 114 and 115 of Amsterdamse anatomische lessen ontleed (approximate English translation: Analysis of the Amsterdam Anatomy Lessons).
There is a relevant quote in Ritual, Belief and the Dead in Early Modern Britain and Ireland, published by the Cambridge University Press:
Unlike the anatomical subjects of the later eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the identity of Rembrandt's cadavers is both known and significant.
I suspect page 154 of The Body Emblazoned contains a similar statement. This suggests that aside from Rembrandt's two anatomical paintings, other cadavers in other anatomical paintings didn't have a known corpse.
Anatomy Live: Performance and the Operating Theatre, published by the Amsterdam University Press suggests that the identities of cadavers were kept secret (page 36).
Out of respect for the criminal’s family – to spare them the added shame – the cadaver’s identity was not disclosed. Identification of the body would also have distracted from the scientific nature of the anatomy lesson, since the audience would see a dead criminal instead of a scientific object on the dissection table.
Both paintings are by Rembrandt (hence the title), a relatively well known artist.
I believe that humans have been around for so long that, surely, there must be another anatomical painting where the identity of the cadaver is known. However, I haven't found any such paintings.
Are Rembrandt's two anatomical paintings the only two where the identity of the cadaver is known?
The master's thesis was published June 2018, so please keep all examples from before that date. Brownie points (and a bounty if the painting is well-known) for paintings from the Renaissance period (as the two Rembrandt paintings are). I know that the Rembrandt paintings were commissioned by the Amsterdam Guild of Surgeons, so I looked up some other similar paintings. This didn't help.
Edit: I have read about all the paintings commissioned by the Amsterdam Guild of Surgeons (available here with very nice analysis). Three were based on real-life events. And two (the Rembrandt paintings) depict a cadaver with a known identity.