Yes. There are exactly two ways.
Bitcoin, or more specifically the blockchain, needs constant auditing by powerful computers which have power as well as cooling needs. If the government controls electricity, as China does, they can effectively choke out the bitcoin miners (auditors) in their country. If the number of miners goes down to the point where any one party is doing a majority of the mining, bitcoin or any other cryptocurrency is no longer decentralized, loses all its value and is no longer anything more than Monopoly money that can be traded as a novelty. Note that any one government can't do this, several governments have to act at once.
A single government could destroy bitcoin by executing what's called a "double-spend attack" or "51% attack" either they can do exactly the opposite of what I described above and expand mining in their own country to brute-force most of the mining to go through their own controlled channels, in which case they have centralized control. This is hard to do, but in a country like China they have the raw materials and population to pull it off. Otherwise, they can more elegantly trick the governance mechanism of the blockchain into taking their fraudulent record of the chain as the real record which can be used to effectively reverse any transaction. If this happens people will lose faith in the blockchain and give up on cryptocurrency which will reduce it's value again to that of a novelty.
If you want to dig deeper into a double-spend attack check this out: https://medium.com/coinmonks/what-is-a-51-attack-or-double-spend-attack-aa108db63474
Beyond choking out the miners or performing a double-spend attack, there's absolutely nothing a government can do. As long as a cryptocurrency is decentralized and authentic, the value is effectively set by the global community and is out of reach of any one government.