I've seen some various claims that the Super Bowl was originally called the Super Ball.
Is this true?
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This is false.
The NFL's Super Bowl History page has the first Super Bowl logo, which calls the game the First World Championship Game AFL vs NFL.
The following games are then called "Super Bowl II" and "Super Bowl III", respectively:
I found something in Wikipedia: it appears that "Super Bowl" came from children playing with a toy called a "Super Ball":
Lamar Hunt, owner of the AFL's Kansas City Chiefs, first used the term "Super Bowl" to refer to the NFL-AFL championship game in the merger meetings. Hunt later said the name was likely in his head because his children had been playing with a Super Ball toy; a vintage example of the ball is on display at the Pro Football Hall of Fame in Canton, Ohio. In a July 25, 1966, letter to NFL commissioner Pete Rozelle, Hunt wrote, "I have kiddingly called it the 'Super Bowl,' which obviously can be improved upon."
The leagues' owners chose the name "AFL–NFL Championship Game", but in July 1966 the Kansas City Star quoted Hunt in discussing "the Super Bowl — that's my term for the championship game between the two leagues", and the media immediately began using the term. Although the league stated in 1967 that "not many people like it", asking for suggestions and considering alternatives such as "Merger Bowl" and "The Game", the Associated Press reported that "Super Bowl" "grew and grew and grew-until it reached the point that there was Super Week, Super Sunday, Super Teams, Super Players, ad infinitum". "Super Bowl" became official beginning with the third annual game. Roman numerals were first affixed for the fifth edition, in January 1971.
Here's the link:
So, the idea came from a Super Ball toy, but as GGMG's answer notes, the football game itself was never officially called the Super Ball.