There does appear to be fairly solid research backing this claim.
A summary page from UCLA:
Sleep and Teens
One change in the body during puberty is closely related to how you sleep. There is a shift in the timing of your circadian rhythms. Before puberty, your body makes you sleepy around 8:00 or 9:00 pm. When puberty begins, this rhythm shifts a couple hours later. Now, your body tells you to go to sleep around 10:00 or 11:00 pm.
Neurology Times agrees:
In turns out that adolescents have a delayed release of regular daily melatonin, which causes them to become sleepy later at night, hours after nightfall. Given the fact that teenagers have an established need for 8-10 hours of sleep per night, the delayed melatonin release that allows teenagers to fall asleep late in the day has the expected effect of predisposing them to remain asleep for longer into the late morning or early afternoon, when it is feasible.
A relevant reference for the Neurology Times article:
Other studies have been done that suggest better outcomes in teenage students when school starts later in the day, and not just in school:
Later high school start times are associated with positive outcomes among teens, including longer weekday sleep durations and reduced vehicular accident rates, research suggests.