Yes. It can be.
Mold is a known aeroallergen. Gastroesophageal reflux disease and eosinophilic esophagitis are closely linked:
Chris A. Liacouras & Jonathan E. Markowitz: "Eosinophilic Esophagitis", Humana Press: New York, 2011, p253:
Allergen exposure has been well documented to have a role in the pathogenesis of pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). […] In the adult population, it has been hypothesized that allergen exposure plays a role in the pathophysiology of adult EoE, supported by high rates of personal and family history of atopy. […] there is increasing evidence for a role of food and aeroallergens […]
Epidemiology and Natural History of Eosinophilic Esophagitis:
Because EoE is an allergic condition, several environmental allergens have been implicated. First, food allergens trigger EoE and the disease can be put into remission by removal of specific foods, either via elimination diets or hypoallergenic elemental formulas.
However, it is still not clear why foods that were tolerated over the course of human evolution would now induce EoE; the effects of farming practices, genetic modification, mass production, packaging, and other related factors have not been examined.
Environmental or aeroallergens can also induce EoE — there are links between pollen season and EoE flares, seasonality of diagnosis of EoE (with more cases diagnosed during times of increase aeroallergens), and cold or arid climate zones. Odds of EoE are higher in rural areas with lower population
density, which might be explained by vegetation, pollution, or other environmental exposures.
Esophagitis and its causes: Who is "guilty" when acid is found "not guilty"?
Esophagitis is mainly a consequence of gastroesophageal reflux disease, one of the most common diseases affecting the upper digestive tract. However the esophageal mucosa can also be targeted by some infectious, systemic or chemical conditions. Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an immune-mediated inflammatory disease, characterized by eosinophilic infiltration in the mucosa.Esophageal localization of Crohn's disease is not very common, but it should always be considered in patients with inflammatory bowel disease complaining of upper digestive tract symptoms. There are also forms of infectious esophagitis (e.g., Herpes simplex virus or Candida albicans) occurring in patients with a compromised immune system, either because of specific diseases or immunosuppressive therapies. Another kind of damage to esophageal mucosa is due to drug use (including oncologic chemotherapeutic regimens and radiotherapy) or caustic ingestion, usually of alkaline liquids, with colliquative necrosis and destruction of mucosa within a few seconds. Dysphagia is a predominant symptom in EoE, while infectious, drug-induced and caustic damages usually cause chest pain and odynophagia. Endoscopy can be useful for diagnosing esophagitis, although no specific pattern can be identified. In conclusion when a patient refers upper gastrointestinal tract symptoms and the diagnosis of gastro-esophageal reflux disease is not convincing we should always carefully investigate the patient's clinical history to consider possibilities other than the gastric refluxate.
Eosinophilic esophagitis in patients with typical gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms refractory to proton pump inhibitor:
The contribution of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) to refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) remains unknown. When EoE and GERD overlap, the clinical, endoscopic and histological findings are nonspecific and cannot be used to distinguish between the two disorders. Limited data are available on this topic, and the interaction between EoE and GERD is a matter of debate.