Possibly, but not likely
There is an older study mentioned in this 1985 Chicago Tribune article that states that and extremely high dose of Vitamin C followed by eating shrimp may result in "trivalent arsenic" being converted from the compounds in shrimp. "What the Illinois researchers found is that high doses of vitamin C convert the pentavalent compounds into trivalent arsenic, a highly toxic poison."
Unfortunately, I can not find the original study. Other "doctors" have gone on the internet to basically state that while it's possible, that the amounts of shrimp and vitamin c that would need to be ingested would be prohibitive, and even then arsenic poisoning would not cause "instant death" but may cause stomach aches, headaches, and the like. Essentially you would have to eat absurd amounts of shrimp and take huge amounts of vitamin c for a prolonged period of time, then it may be possible to die from it.
On the other side of the coin, there are two studies I have found that mention the effect of Vitamin C (amoung others) on reducing the toxicity of arsenic.
So while possible to cause long term arsenic poisoning by eating huge amounts of shrimp and massive amounts of Vitamin C, short term, deadly arsenic poising is not possible.