A recent (2016) study, Ancient Babylonian astronomers calculated Jupiter’s position from the area under a time-velocity graph examines a cuneiform script and gives evidence that that Babylonians in 350-50 BCE were able to use geometrical methods to calculate exact planet positions (such as Jupiter), and describe its motion in an abstract mathematical space (prefiguring the methods of the Oxford Calculators)wiki. This pre-dates the Europeans who were able to do this in the 14th century (e.g. computing a body’s displacement as an area in time-velocity space).
The abstract states:
This interpretation is prompted by a newly discovered tablet on which the same computation is presented in an equivalent arithmetical formulation. The tablets date from 350 to 50 BCE. The trapezoid procedures offer the first evidence for the use of geometrical methods in Babylonian mathematical astronomy, which was thus far viewed as operating exclusively with arithmetical concepts.
Is this study reliable?