This article makes a number of interesting claims about health and fitness, but I wanted to focus on this one:
In one International Journal of Sports Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism study, exercisers who ate breakfast before working enjoyed significantly higher VO2 (a measure of energy expenditure) and fat-burn rates compared to those who hadn't eaten breakfast before exercising.
- Can this be traced to a particular study which is not objectively problematic (e.g. retracted, published in a disreputable journal, rejected by a subsequent meta-study, etc.)?
- Is the study causal, or just correlational (i.e. did they passively observe, or actively assign people to control and treatment groups)?
- More generally, does the study support the claim that eating before exercising is more effective at burning calories and/or fat than eating after exercising?