This is a touchy issue. I think it is important to note that the question of "Is a woman who dresses sexually suggestively more likely to get raped, at least in some instances" which is the question being asked from "Is a woman who dresses sexually suggestively at all to blame if she suffers from rape" which is often the question people respond to.
There are many studies showing that people will be more likely to attribute blame to women who are provocatively dressed without saying anything about whether or not the chances of rape are increased in some situations. Those studies are linked in the other answers to this question.
Some studies have shown that provocative dress can have an affect on the likelihood of sexual assault, at least in some instances.
Antecedents of sexual victimization: factors discriminating victims from nonvictims.
Synovitz LB, Byrne TJ., J Am Coll Health. Jan;46(4):151-8. (1998)
The variables found to be related to women's being sexually victimized
were (a) number of different lifetime sexual partners, (b) provocative
dress, and (c) alcohol use.
An Examination of Date Rape, Victim Dress, and Perceiver Variables Within the Context of Attribution Theory
Workman JE, Freeburg EW., Sex Roles, Volume 41, Numbers 3-4, 261-277 (1995)
This study found in part that the way a woman choose to dress is sometimes taken as a statement about her character including vulnerability, desire and/or willingness to have sex and provocation of males which consequently affects the likelihood of rape, including date rape.
The effects of clothing and dyad sex composition on perceptions of sexual intent: Do women and men evaluate these cues differently.
Abbey, A., Cozzarelli, C., McLaughlin, K., & Harnish, R. J. (1987) Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 17, 108–126.
A laboratory study was conducted in which subjects viewed a photograph
of two students in a classroom. As predicted, male subjects rated
female targets as more sexy and seductive than did female subjects.
Also as predicted, female targets who wore revealing clothing were
rated as more sexy and seductive than those wearing nonrevealing
clothing. Female targets were rated higher on sexual traits regardless
of the gender of their partner.
The study went on to infer that provocative dress can lead to an increased chance of date or spousal rape in some situations (primarily spousal and/or date rape).
While it is an unpopular view, I think it is safe to say that provocative dress may increase the chance of rape in some situations.
At the moment it is hard to say anything for sure, as there are too many variable factors. Rape statistics are often misreported or not reported at all. We don't know enough about how people interpret or respond to clothing. There also seems to be a lack of studies focusing on this area, which is understandable given the problems in obtaining data.