In Germany it’s a common belief that drafts/draughts can make you ill.
Because of that, car and train windows typically get/stay closed, even when it’s really hot; and, for instance, on a warm day in a beer garden, people might change seats/tables when they’re sitting in a draught. It’s believed that the negative effect is heavily increased if you have wet hair, or if you are in poor health.
The German Wikipedia article about draughts says that it might stem from a widespread ancient fear of daemons/wind.
This is probably based on the German SPIEGEL article Dämonen am Fenster from 1968 (translated: Daemons at the window).
The English SPIEGEL ONLINE article Draftophobia: Blown Away by the Fear of Air says in its introduction that it’s a "German quirk":
A lot of Germans don't like drafts. Some even seem to have an irrational fear of moving air, believing it can cause pneumonia, flu, colds, clogged arteries and just about every malady imaginable. Two readers offer their views of this unusual German quirk.
From the English GLS article Why I love German (archived by the Wayback Machine), which originally appeared in the FAZ:
[…] Don't be fooled. For obscure reasons, Germans have got it into their heads that air is the enemy, especially indoors.
For a bit of enjoyment, go into a cafe on a dull winter's day, one where the guests can barely be distinguished through the cigarette smoke, and tilt open a window just a crack. Before you have retreated three steps, the cry Es zieht! -- "There's a draft!" -- will go up and in a flurry of panic the window will be slammed shut. […] What elsewhere is known as a breeze is, in the Teutonic realm, the grim reaper's mocking breath.
This is also referenced by the German 'USA Erklärt' blog post Die seltsame Angst der Germanen vor sich bewegender Luft (translated: The strange fear of moving air by Germanic people).
Is there evidence that staying (e.g., sitting) in a draught can make humans ill? Can illnesses be caused by the "moving air" of the draft itself, not merely any resulting drop in temperature? (Cold alone is covered in a previous question, and examples are given above of people people avoiding drafts even when the resulting temperature is not cold).
(It seems to be more widespread to believe that draughts can lead to muscle tenseness, but I want to focus on illnesses in this question.)