Years ago, I had a friend who was both a heavy smoker and a noted contrarian. One day as we were driving past a large anti-tobacco billboard he told me he thought that telling smokers not smoke was actually the best way to promote smoking, since it can't be legally advertised (on television, radio, and some publications) in the US. He also vowed to smoke a cigarette every time he saw one.
Tobacco advertising has long been criticized for targeting children and teenagers, as evidenced by the removal of "joe camel" from the advertising of Camel cigarettes. Given the typically rebellious behavior noted in teenagers, it would stand to a certain kind of reason that these advertisements could actually encourage them to smoke, or at least be unconvincing to those who had already decided to smoke. Running across articles like this indicates that my contrarian friend isn't the only person to hold this view.
Have anti-smoking campaigns and advertisements been shown to (either intentionally or unintentionally) promote smoking, either by encouraging new smokers to start, or by encouraging those who have already developed the habit to smoke more?