I am Italian, and can confirm that most of the prices doubled in the two years after the introduction of the Euro.
For the first year we had double currency, with merchants forced to show both prices. In that period prices stayed basically unchanged.
On the second year the double pricing stopped and most commodities went up rapidly. The merchants played on the habits of people and visual impact of prices. I'll try to explain:
Say a piece of bread was 500 Lire (Italy's currency). People are used to see 500 on the price tag. Post Euro, the bread was 50 cents. Now people would still see "5" and unconsciously think it's the same price.
It's the same logic behind X.99 prices: people tend to see just the first digit, so 4.99 "feels" like 4 instead of 5.
This way, raises went (almost) unnoticed, until people people found their purse was much lighter at the end of the month. 1 EUR was 1936.27 Lire hence selling bread at 50 euro cents is 968.14 Lire i.e. almost double price!
Friends from Spain and Greece confirmed the same happened to their countries.
At the page http://www.aduc.it/comunicato/prezzi+aumento+pane+responsabili+commercianti_12447.php you can read an official report from ADUC (Italy's Consumers Association) where it states that the price of bread went up from 1.03 to 2.5 EUR/Kg between 1995 and 2006 (an increase of 380%). The news also states that the increase in prices was due to merchants rather than increase in resources.
PRICE TREND OF BREAD AND WHEAT IN ITALY
Price in euro per Kg
1985 - wheat 0,23; bread 0,52
1990 - wheat 0,19 (-18%); bread 0,83 (+60%)
1995 - wheat 0,16 (-31%); bread 1,03 (+98%)
2006 - wheat 0,15 (-35%); bread 2,5 (+380%)
2007 - wheat 0,22 (-5%); bread 2,7 (+419%)