According to Medline Plus, eating right before bed can increase your metabolism and increase your brain's overnight activity, leading to dreams and nightmares.
Substances such as alcohol and nicotine cause a lighter sleep and prevent REM sleep, which decreases dreaming. However, some foods may increase REM sleep, which increases dreaming.
The British cheese board (remarkably it does exist) conducted a "study" giving 200 people cheese at most 30 mins before bed and found that 67% (130 odd) remembered their dreams the following day. There was no control in this publicity stunt study (though it was endorsed by a sleep scientist at the University of Surrey) so there is no way of nothing if that is an increase or a decrease from normal rates of dream recall.
So I would say it is possible that eating certain foods might increase your chances of dream recall upon waking. Though with the caevet that this could just be down to cultural expectations that lead people to expect to dream and therefore they "remember" dreams when they wake up. Though Richard Wiseman ran an experiment on this and a fair number of commenters who would have expected to dream failed to recall any dreams.
In short: more research is needed but it's possible and may even be plausible depending on the food being consumed.