No; during the life of Muhammad, there was no single text, as it was more about understanding the message than how it was told:
This page cites hadiths that mention seven different ways of teaching:
The Seven Ahruf (modes of recitation) are part of Islamic doctrine and
a Muslim MUST ACCEPT IT...
Volume 6, Book 61, Number 513: Narrated 'Abdullah bin 'Abbas:
Allah's Apostle said, "Gabriel recited the Qur'an to me in one way.
Then I requested him (to read it in another way), and continued asking
him to recite it in other ways, and he recited it in several ways till
he ultimately recited it in seven different ways."
Volume 6, Book 61, Number 514:
Narrated 'Umar bin Al-Khattab:
I heard Hisham bin Hakim reciting Surat Al-Furqan during the lifetime
of Allah's Apostle and I listened to his recitation and noticed that
he recited in several different ways which Allah's Apostle had not
taught me. I was about to jump over him during his prayer, but I
controlled my temper, and when he had completed his prayer, I put his
upper garment around his neck and seized him by it and said, "Who
taught you this Sura which I heard you reciting?" He replied, "Allah's
Apostle taught it to me." I said, "You have told a lie, for Allah's
Apostle has taught it to me in a different way from yours." So I
dragged him to Allah's Apostle and said (to Allah's Apostle),
"I heard this person reciting Surat Al-Furqan in a way which you
haven't taught me!" On that Allah's Apostle said, "Release him, (O
'Umar!) Recite, O Hisham!" Then he recited in the same way as I heard
him reciting. Then Allah's Apostle said, "It was revealed in this
way," and added, "Recite, O 'Umar!" I recited it as he had taught me.
Allah's Apostle then said, "It was revealed in this way. This Qur'an
has been revealed to be recited in seven different ways, so recite of
it whichever (way) is easier for you (or read as much of it as may be
easy for you)."
Volume 006, Book 061, Hadith Number 582.
Narated By Abdullah : That he heard a man reciting a Qur'anic Verse
which he had heard the Prophet reciting in a different way. So he took
that man to the Prophet (and told him the story). The Prophet said,
"Both of you are reciting in a correct way, so carry on reciting." The
Prophet further added, "The nations which were before you were
destroyed (by Allah) because they differed."
Scholars still have not come to a consensus regarding what these
Seven Ahruf are. Some said that the Quran was revealed in seven
different ways (not all the verses, only some) with synonyms replacing
certain words. For example, besides saying "ehdina al sirat al
mustaqeem" in one harf it would read "arshudna al sirat al mustaqeem"
in another and they would both mean the same thing, which is "Guide us
unto the right path". It seems to me that this is the strongest
opinion as to what the seven ahruf are.
Also the ten Qira'at are the different ways of reciting the Quran,
which (according to the strongest opinion of the scholars) contain
parts of the seven ahruf in them.
So there were lots of ways to talk about the lessons of Muhammad, and people were already arguing about which was correct.
Zaid bin Thabit started collecting verses after many people who had memorized them died:
Abu Bakr sent for me owing to the large number of casualties in the
battle of Al-Yamama, while 'Umar was sitting with him. Abu Bakr said
(to me), 'Umar has come to my and said, 'A great number of Qaris of
the Holy Qur'an were killed on the day of the battle of Al-Yamama, and
I am afraid that the casualties among the Qaris of the Qur'an may
increase on other battle-fields whereby a large part of the Qur'an may
be lost. Therefore I consider it advisable that you (Abu Bakr) should
have the Qur'an collected.' I said, 'How dare I do something which
Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) did not do?' 'Umar said, By Allah, it is
So I started compiling the Qur'an by collecting it from the leafless
stalks of the date-palm tree and from the pieces of leather and hides
and from the stones, and from the chests of men (who had memorized the
Qur'an). I found the last verses of Sirat-at-Tauba: ("Verily there has
come unto you an Apostle (Muhammad) from amongst yourselves--'
(9.128-129) ) from Khuza`ima or Abi Khuza'ima and I added to it the
rest of the Sura. The manuscripts of the Qur'an remained with Abu Bakr
till Allah took him unto Him. Then it remained with 'Umar till Allah
took him unto Him, and then with Hafsa bint 'Umar.
The collection of the Qur'an:
Hudhaifa bin Al-Yaman came to Uthman at the time when the people of
Sham and the people of Iraq were Waging war to conquer Arminya and
Adharbijan. Hudhaifa was afraid of their (the people of Sham and Iraq)
differences in the recitation of the Qur'an, so he said to Uthman, "O
chief of the Believers! Save this nation before they differ about the
Book (Qur'an) as Jews and the Christians did before." So Uthman sent a
message to Hafsa saying, "Send us the manuscripts of the Qur'an so
that we may compile the Qur'anic materials in perfect copies and
return the manuscripts to you." Hafsa sent it to Uthman. Uthman then
ordered Zaid bin Thabit, Abdullah bin AzZubair, Said bin Al-As and
AbdurRahman bin Harith bin Hisham to rewrite the manuscripts in
perfect copies. Uthman said to the three Quraishi men, "In case you
disagree with Zaid bin Thabit on any point in the Qur'an, then write
it in the dialect of Quraish, the Qur'an was revealed in their
tongue." They did so, and when they had written many copies, Uthman
returned the original manuscripts to Hafsa. Uthman sent to every
Muslim province one copy of what they had copied, and ordered that all
the other Qur'anic materials, whether written in fragmentary
manuscripts or whole copies, be burnt.
Not everyone was happy with the canonical version, though:
Dialects and Readings of the Qur'an (Kitab Al-Huruf Wa Al-Qira'at):
Ibn Mas'ud said read the verse: "Now come, thou" (haita laka). Then
Shariq said: We read it, "hi'tu laka" (I am prepared for thee). Ibn
Mas'ud said: I read it as I have been taught ; it is dearer to me.
Personally, this hadith makes me doubt whether everything came from Gabriel:
Volume 6, Book 61, Number 512: Narrated Al-Bara:
There was revealed: 'Not equal are those believers who sit (at home)
and those who strive and fight in the Cause of Allah.' (4.95)
The Prophet said, "Call Zaid for me and let him bring the board, the
inkpot and the scapula bone (or the scapula bone and the ink pot)."'
Then he said, "Write: 'Not equal are those Believers who sit..", and
at that time 'Amr bin Um Maktum, the blind man was sitting behind the
Prophet . He said, "O Allah's Apostle! What is your order For me (as
regards the above Verse) as I am a blind man?" So, instead of the
above Verse, the following Verse was revealed:
'Not equal are those believers who sit (at home) except those who are
disabled (by injury or are blind or lame etc.) and those who strive
and fight in the cause of Allah.' (4.95)