Summary: You can do it, as a last resort, but it's dicey.
The US Army doesn't think it's a good idea and lists it on its "Do NOT drink" list, stating in its Field Manual that it "contains harmful body wastes" and that it is "about 2 percent salt." Several other resources seem to agree, all indicating that it will increase your rate of dehydration. (Warning: the popular science link is not fun to open.)
If it's your only source of water, it's likely that the US Army's recommendations of how to purify polluted water for consumption also applies to urine:
If polluted water is your only moisture source, dig a small trough outside
the hole about 25 centimeters from the still’s lip (Figure 6-8). Dig the
trough about 25 centimeters deep and 8 centimeters wide. Pour the polluted
water in the trough. Be sure you do not spill any polluted water
around the rim of the hole where the plastic sheet touches the soil. The
trough holds the polluted water and the soil filters it as the still draws it.
The water then condenses on the plastic and drains into the container.
This process works extremely well when your only water source is salt
Other sources, which support my memory on the matter, indicate that it is at best a short term solution. For example, in a Slate article named The Yellow Liquid Diet, the author says that the waste might eventually "cause symptoms similar to those brought on by total kidney failure":
How long can you survive by drinking pee?
An extra day or two, at best. A healthy person's urine is about 95 percent water and sterile, so in the short term it's safe to drink and does replenish lost water. But the other 5 percent of urine comprises a diverse collection of waste products, including nitrogen, potassium, and calcium—and too much of these can cause problems. When you drink your own pee, all the stuff that your kidneys had attempted to excrete comes right back into your stomach, and much of it ends up back in your kidneys. After several days of this, your urine will become highly concentrated with dangerous waste products, and drinking it can cause symptoms similar to those brought on by total kidney failure. At that point, you're doomed either way—from dehydration on the one hand or renal meltdown on the other. (Even if one could filter out most of the unwanted products in urine, the cycle would not be sustainable for long. In addition to what he or she pees out, the average human excretes about half a quart of water a day through sweating and exhaling.)
However, drinking urine for survival has been attempted successfully before.
For example, in 2008, a Chinese man by the name of Shen Peiyun survived six days by laying still and drinking his own urine, which is solid evidence that it won't kill you at least some of the time. While it is not necessarily fatal, it doesn't mean it isn't harmful. For instance, in the case above, no expert has asserted that he would have died without drinking his own urine.