Groth (1979) originally identified four types of rapists, classifications that were expanded upon by Berger (2000): the power reassurance rapists (compensatory); power assertive rapists (power, impulsive); anger retaliation rapists (power, control); and anger/excitation rapists (sadistic) which is reported here. Research also shows that acquaintance rapists are characterized as coercive, less violent, and less opportunistic when compared to stranger rapists who are more hostile and use more expressive violence (i.e., inflicting pain or injury as the goal itself) toward women.
The most commonly cited motivational characteristics of sex offenders mentioned here for rape also reflect the same themes as above like that of compensation, impulsion, assertion, retaliation and excitation. Most modern conceptualizations of rape recognize that it involves both aggressive and sexual motives, but theorists generally emphasize one motive and minimize others. Previous research had not focused on rapists’ communication patterns, except for a study conducted by Darke in 1986 that focused only on verbal communication related to humiliation.
The caring/persuasion/reassurance theme appears to be consistent with behavioral characteristics of rapists in the 'power reassurance rapist' proposed by researchers Douglas & Olshaker in 1998 to be the most common type of rapist. Previous researchers have suggested that this type of rapist generally feels inadequate and compensates for these feelings of inadequacy by sexually assaulting women. Further, it seems that this type of rapist is constantly looking for reassurance of his own power and potency, and may apologize and express concern for his victim. However, this type of behavior serves the rapist's need for reassurance rather than expressing any genuine concern for his victim. Papers by Douglas & Olshaker, 1998 and Hazelwood & Burgess, 1987 provide more insight into this behavior.
The angry/demeaning/threatening theme was the next most common type of offender communication. However, some of the communication patterns seem to be consistent with the power exploitative rapist, as researchers suggest that this type of rapist is generally concerned with dominating and controlling his victim and using force, threats and humiliation to gain this submission. This theme is also consistent with the crime scene variables of aggression, antisocial behaviour, anger and vindictiveness identified by Knight et al. in 1998.
The characteristics of sexually nonsadistic rapist group per Massachusetts Treatment Centre Rapist Typology: Version 3 (MTC:R3) classification revealing their primary motivation of rape as sexual release is not exactly known. 'Sexual release' is not a major/minor motivation class for rape referring to studies such as 'Motivational factors in nonincarcerated sexually aggressive men and 'Motives and psychodynamics of self-reported, unincarcerated rapists.
Per a UN study on men and violence in Asia and the Pacific, 70 to 80% of men who indulged in rape reported that their common motivation was related to sexual entitlement which is the men's belief that they have the right to sex regardless of consent.