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Attacking this purely from the angle of locating pre-Columbian mentions of any species of datura in the Old World, here's one example.

From page 201 of Ronald M. Davidson's book, Indian Esoteric Buddhism: A Social History of the Tantric Movement:

Moreover, many of the siddha scriptures discuss ointments and drugs, especially those applied to the eyes or feet. The use of the various species of datura (especially datura fastuosa) is particularly evident. Sometimes termed the “crazy datura” (unmattadhattura) or “Śiva's datura,” it was generally employed as a narcotic paste or as wood in a fire ceremony and could be easily absorbed through the skin or the lungs.103 The seeds of this powerful narcotic, termed “passion seeds” (candabīja), are the strongest elements and contain the alkaloids hyoscine, hyoscyamine, and atropine in forms that survive burning or boiling. In even moderate doses, datura can render a person virtually immobile with severe belladonna-like hallucinations.

Datura fastuosa is a variety of Datura metel. Davidson's provided reference for the above section reads:

Kṛṣṇayamāri-tantra IV.45, IX.4 (seeds); Sampuṭa, To. 381, fols. 121b5, 128a6; Saṃvarodaya-tantra X.36, XXVII.10–14; Mahākāla-tantra, in Stablein 1976, pp. 169, 267, 275–277; Vajramahābhairava-tantra, in Siklós 1996, p. 83; Guhyasamāja XV.81.

Assuming that the "Krishnayamari-tantra" (which apparently concerns "seeds") is the source of his assertion, I came across the following paper by another academic, Kenichi Kuranishi, in which he notes:

The Kṛṣṇayamāritantra, which is categorized in the Yogottaratantra category, most likely dates to from the ninth to the tenth century.1 The tantra consists of eighteen chapters.

(The reference discusses the dating in more detail.)

Some corroboration on the date from the Wikipedia article on Vajrayana (Tantric Buddhism):

Only from the 7th or the beginning of the 8th century, tantric techniques and approaches increasingly dominated Buddhist practice in India. From the 7th century onwards many popular religious elements of a heterogeneous nature were incorporated into Mahayana Buddhism, which finally resulted in the appearance of the Sahaja-siddhi tantras, the Kalachakra tantra and Vajrayāna.

So, if these gentlemen are to be believed, then D. metel was in use in India in the first millennium CE.

Attacking this purely from the angle of locating pre-Columbian mentions of any species of datura in the Old World, here's one example.

From page 201 of Ronald M. Davidson's book, Indian Esoteric Buddhism: A Social History of the Tantric Movement:

Moreover, many of the siddha scriptures discuss ointments and drugs, especially those applied to the eyes or feet. The use of the various species of datura (especially datura fastuosa) is particularly evident. Sometimes termed the “crazy datura” (unmattadhattura) or “Śiva's datura,” it was generally employed as a narcotic paste or as wood in a fire ceremony and could be easily absorbed through the skin or the lungs.103 The seeds of this powerful narcotic, termed “passion seeds” (candabīja), are the strongest elements and contain the alkaloids hyoscine, hyoscyamine, and atropine in forms that survive burning or boiling. In even moderate doses, datura can render a person virtually immobile with severe belladonna-like hallucinations.

Datura fastuosa is a variety of Datura metel. Davidson's provided reference for the above section reads:

Kṛṣṇayamāri-tantra IV.45, IX.4 (seeds); Sampuṭa, To. 381, fols. 121b5, 128a6; Saṃvarodaya-tantra X.36, XXVII.10–14; Mahākāla-tantra, in Stablein 1976, pp. 169, 267, 275–277; Vajramahābhairava-tantra, in Siklós 1996, p. 83; Guhyasamāja XV.81.

Assuming that the "Krishnayamari-tantra" (which apparently concerns "seeds") is the source of his assertion, I came across the following paper by another academic, Kenichi Kuranishi, in which he notes:

The Kṛṣṇayamāritantra, which is categorized in the Yogottaratantra category, most likely dates to from the ninth to the tenth century.1 The tantra consists of eighteen chapters.

(The reference discusses the dating in more detail.)

Some corroboration on the date from the Wikipedia article on Vajrayana (Tantric Buddhism):

Only from the 7th or the beginning of the 8th century, tantric techniques and approaches increasingly dominated Buddhist practice in India. From the 7th century onwards many popular religious elements of a heterogeneous nature were incorporated into Mahayana Buddhism, which finally resulted in the appearance of the Sahaja-siddhi tantras, the Kalachakra tantra and Vajrayāna.

So, if these gentlemen are to be believed, then D. metel was in use in India in the first millennium CE.

Attacking this purely from the angle of locating pre-Columbian mentions of any species of datura in the Old World, here's one example.

From page 201 of Ronald M. Davidson's book, Indian Esoteric Buddhism: A Social History of the Tantric Movement:

Moreover, many of the siddha scriptures discuss ointments and drugs, especially those applied to the eyes or feet. The use of the various species of datura (especially datura fastuosa) is particularly evident. Sometimes termed the “crazy datura” (unmattadhattura) or “Śiva's datura,” it was generally employed as a narcotic paste or as wood in a fire ceremony and could be easily absorbed through the skin or the lungs.103 The seeds of this powerful narcotic, termed “passion seeds” (candabīja), are the strongest elements and contain the alkaloids hyoscine, hyoscyamine, and atropine in forms that survive burning or boiling. In even moderate doses, datura can render a person virtually immobile with severe belladonna-like hallucinations.

Datura fastuosa is a variety of Datura metel. Davidson's provided reference for the above section reads:

Kṛṣṇayamāri-tantra IV.45, IX.4 (seeds); Sampuṭa, To. 381, fols. 121b5, 128a6; Saṃvarodaya-tantra X.36, XXVII.10–14; Mahākāla-tantra, in Stablein 1976, pp. 169, 267, 275–277; Vajramahābhairava-tantra, in Siklós 1996, p. 83; Guhyasamāja XV.81.

Assuming that the "Krishnayamari-tantra" (which apparently concerns "seeds") is the source of his assertion, I came across the following paper by another academic, Kenichi Kuranishi, in which he notes:

The Kṛṣṇayamāritantra, which is categorized in the Yogottaratantra category, most likely dates to from the ninth to the tenth century.1 The tantra consists of eighteen chapters.

(The reference discusses the dating in more detail.)

So, if these gentlemen are to be believed, then D. metel was in use in India in the first millennium CE.

2 added 10 characters in body
source | link

Attacking this purely from the angle of locating pre-Columbian mentions of any species of datura in the Old World, here's one example.

From page 201 of Ronald M. Davidson's book, Indian Esoteric Buddhism: A Social History of the Tantric Movement:

Moreover, many of the siddha scriptures discuss ointments and drugs, especially those applied to the eyes or feet. The use of the various species of datura (especially datura fastuosa) is particularly evident. Sometimes termed the “crazy datura” (unmattadhattura) or “Śiva's datura,” it was generally employed as a narcotic paste or as wood in a fire ceremony and could be easily absorbed through the skin or the lungs. 103103 The seeds of this powerful narcotic, termed “passion seeds” (candabīja), are the strongest elements and contain the alkaloids hyoscine, hyoscyamine, and atropine in forms that survive burning or boiling. In even moderate doses, datura can render a person virtually immobile with severe belladonna-like hallucinations.

Datura fastuosa is a variety of Datura metel. Davidson's provided reference for the above section reads:

Kṛṣṇayamāri-tantra IV.45, IX.4 (seeds); Sampuṭa, To. 381, fols. 121b5, 128a6; Saṃvarodaya-tantra X.36, XXVII.10–14; Mahākāla-tantra, in Stablein 1976, pp. 169, 267, 275–277; Vajramahābhairava-tantra, in Siklós 1996, p. 83; Guhyasamāja XV.81.

Assuming that the "Krishnayamari-tantra" (which apparently concerns "seeds") is the source of his assertion, I came across the following paper by another academic, Kenichi Kuranishi, in which he notes:

The Kṛṣṇayamāritantra, which is categorized in the Yogottaratantra category, most likely dates to from the ninth to the tenth century.1 The tantra consists of eighteen chapters.

(The reference discusses the dating in more detail.)

Some corroboration on the date from the Wikipedia article on Vajrayana (Tantric Buddhism):

Only from the 7th or the beginning of the 8th century, tantric techniques and approaches increasingly dominated Buddhist practice in India. From the 7th century onwards many popular religious elements of a heterogeneous nature were incorporated into Mahayana Buddhism, which finally resulted in the appearance of the Sahaja-siddhi tantras, the Kalachakra tantra and Vajrayāna.

So, if these gentlemen are to be believed, then D. metel was in use in India in the first millennium CE.

Attacking this purely from the angle of locating pre-Columbian mentions of any species of datura in the Old World, here's one example.

From page 201 of Ronald M. Davidson's book, Indian Esoteric Buddhism: A Social History of the Tantric Movement:

Moreover, many of the siddha scriptures discuss ointments and drugs, especially those applied to the eyes or feet. The use of the various species of datura (especially datura fastuosa) is particularly evident. Sometimes termed the “crazy datura” (unmattadhattura) or “Śiva's datura,” it was generally employed as a narcotic paste or as wood in a fire ceremony and could be easily absorbed through the skin or the lungs. 103 The seeds of this powerful narcotic, termed “passion seeds” (candabīja), are the strongest elements and contain the alkaloids hyoscine, hyoscyamine, and atropine in forms that survive burning or boiling. In even moderate doses, datura can render a person virtually immobile with severe belladonna-like hallucinations.

Datura fastuosa is a variety of Datura metel. Davidson's provided reference for the above section reads:

Kṛṣṇayamāri-tantra IV.45, IX.4 (seeds); Sampuṭa, To. 381, fols. 121b5, 128a6; Saṃvarodaya-tantra X.36, XXVII.10–14; Mahākāla-tantra, in Stablein 1976, pp. 169, 267, 275–277; Vajramahābhairava-tantra, in Siklós 1996, p. 83; Guhyasamāja XV.81.

Assuming that the "Krishnayamari-tantra" (which apparently concerns "seeds") is the source of his assertion, I came across the following paper by another academic, Kenichi Kuranishi, in which he notes:

The Kṛṣṇayamāritantra, which is categorized in the Yogottaratantra category, most likely dates to from the ninth to the tenth century.1 The tantra consists of eighteen chapters.

(The reference discusses the dating in more detail.)

Some corroboration on the date from the Wikipedia article on Vajrayana (Tantric Buddhism):

Only from the 7th or the beginning of the 8th century, tantric techniques and approaches increasingly dominated Buddhist practice in India. From the 7th century onwards many popular religious elements of a heterogeneous nature were incorporated into Mahayana Buddhism, which finally resulted in the appearance of the Sahaja-siddhi tantras, the Kalachakra tantra and Vajrayāna.

So, if these gentlemen are to be believed, then D. metel was in use in India in the first millennium CE.

Attacking this purely from the angle of locating pre-Columbian mentions of any species of datura in the Old World, here's one example.

From page 201 of Ronald M. Davidson's book, Indian Esoteric Buddhism: A Social History of the Tantric Movement:

Moreover, many of the siddha scriptures discuss ointments and drugs, especially those applied to the eyes or feet. The use of the various species of datura (especially datura fastuosa) is particularly evident. Sometimes termed the “crazy datura” (unmattadhattura) or “Śiva's datura,” it was generally employed as a narcotic paste or as wood in a fire ceremony and could be easily absorbed through the skin or the lungs.103 The seeds of this powerful narcotic, termed “passion seeds” (candabīja), are the strongest elements and contain the alkaloids hyoscine, hyoscyamine, and atropine in forms that survive burning or boiling. In even moderate doses, datura can render a person virtually immobile with severe belladonna-like hallucinations.

Datura fastuosa is a variety of Datura metel. Davidson's provided reference for the above section reads:

Kṛṣṇayamāri-tantra IV.45, IX.4 (seeds); Sampuṭa, To. 381, fols. 121b5, 128a6; Saṃvarodaya-tantra X.36, XXVII.10–14; Mahākāla-tantra, in Stablein 1976, pp. 169, 267, 275–277; Vajramahābhairava-tantra, in Siklós 1996, p. 83; Guhyasamāja XV.81.

Assuming that the "Krishnayamari-tantra" (which apparently concerns "seeds") is the source of his assertion, I came across the following paper by another academic, Kenichi Kuranishi, in which he notes:

The Kṛṣṇayamāritantra, which is categorized in the Yogottaratantra category, most likely dates to from the ninth to the tenth century.1 The tantra consists of eighteen chapters.

(The reference discusses the dating in more detail.)

Some corroboration on the date from the Wikipedia article on Vajrayana (Tantric Buddhism):

Only from the 7th or the beginning of the 8th century, tantric techniques and approaches increasingly dominated Buddhist practice in India. From the 7th century onwards many popular religious elements of a heterogeneous nature were incorporated into Mahayana Buddhism, which finally resulted in the appearance of the Sahaja-siddhi tantras, the Kalachakra tantra and Vajrayāna.

So, if these gentlemen are to be believed, then D. metel was in use in India in the first millennium CE.

1
source | link

Attacking this purely from the angle of locating pre-Columbian mentions of any species of datura in the Old World, here's one example.

From page 201 of Ronald M. Davidson's book, Indian Esoteric Buddhism: A Social History of the Tantric Movement:

Moreover, many of the siddha scriptures discuss ointments and drugs, especially those applied to the eyes or feet. The use of the various species of datura (especially datura fastuosa) is particularly evident. Sometimes termed the “crazy datura” (unmattadhattura) or “Śiva's datura,” it was generally employed as a narcotic paste or as wood in a fire ceremony and could be easily absorbed through the skin or the lungs. 103 The seeds of this powerful narcotic, termed “passion seeds” (candabīja), are the strongest elements and contain the alkaloids hyoscine, hyoscyamine, and atropine in forms that survive burning or boiling. In even moderate doses, datura can render a person virtually immobile with severe belladonna-like hallucinations.

Datura fastuosa is a variety of Datura metel. Davidson's provided reference for the above section reads:

Kṛṣṇayamāri-tantra IV.45, IX.4 (seeds); Sampuṭa, To. 381, fols. 121b5, 128a6; Saṃvarodaya-tantra X.36, XXVII.10–14; Mahākāla-tantra, in Stablein 1976, pp. 169, 267, 275–277; Vajramahābhairava-tantra, in Siklós 1996, p. 83; Guhyasamāja XV.81.

Assuming that the "Krishnayamari-tantra" (which apparently concerns "seeds") is the source of his assertion, I came across the following paper by another academic, Kenichi Kuranishi, in which he notes:

The Kṛṣṇayamāritantra, which is categorized in the Yogottaratantra category, most likely dates to from the ninth to the tenth century.1 The tantra consists of eighteen chapters.

(The reference discusses the dating in more detail.)

Some corroboration on the date from the Wikipedia article on Vajrayana (Tantric Buddhism):

Only from the 7th or the beginning of the 8th century, tantric techniques and approaches increasingly dominated Buddhist practice in India. From the 7th century onwards many popular religious elements of a heterogeneous nature were incorporated into Mahayana Buddhism, which finally resulted in the appearance of the Sahaja-siddhi tantras, the Kalachakra tantra and Vajrayāna.

So, if these gentlemen are to be believed, then D. metel was in use in India in the first millennium CE.