4 linked to source dictionary
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Churchill (who was of course partisan) alleged that they weren't exactly cooperating: from http://www.ibiblio.org/pha/policy/1939/1939-10-01a.html

"Russia has pursued a cold policy of self-interest. We could have wished that the Russian Armies should be standing on their present line as the friends and allies of Poland, instead of as invaders. But that the Russian Armies should stand on this line was clearly necessary for the safety of Russia against the Nazi menace.

At any rate the line is there, and an Eastern Front has been created which Nazi Germany does not dare assail. When Herr von Ribbentrop [German Foreign Minister] was summoned to Moscow last week, it was to learn the fact, and to accept the fact, that the Nazi designs upon the Baltic states and upon the Ukraine must come to a dead stop.

I cannot forecast to you the action of Russia. It is a [riddle] wrapped in mystery inside an enigma; but perhaps there is a key. That key is Russian national interest."

On the other hand, Wikipedia's article on The secret protocol of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact says,

With the Western nations unwilling to accede to Soviet demands, Stalin instead entered a secret Nazi–Soviet alliance.[77]

In summary the answer seems to me to depend on what you think "de facto ally" means.

The section titled Expansion of raw materials and military trading seems to me to meet at least the second definition of "ally"second definition of "ally", and quite possible the first as well:

define:ally

  • noun: a state formally cooperating with another for a military or other purpose, typically by treaty.
    antonyms: enemy, opponent
    a group of nations taking military action together, in particular the countries that fought with the US in World War I and World War II.
  • verb: combine or unite a resource or commodity with (another) for mutual benefit. 

On the other hand, per for example Churchill's view, they were also "opponents".


It's possible that the Soviets were "reluctant allies" (for example, if I were cooperate with you because you had a gun to my head, I'm uncertain whether that would make me your "ally").

Various points of view are discussed in Wikipedia's Post-war commentary regarding the motives of Stalin and Hitler.

Several possible motives are alleged, including:

  • In return for 'non-intervention' Stalin secured a breathing space of immunity from German attack
  • The claim that the Soviet Union was at the time threatened by Hitler, as Stalin supposed,...is a legend, to whose creators Stalin himself belonged
  • Stalin's primary motive for signing the Soviet–German non-aggression treaty was his calculation that such a pact could result in a conflict between the capitalist countries of Western Europe

Churchill (who was of course partisan) alleged that they weren't exactly cooperating: from http://www.ibiblio.org/pha/policy/1939/1939-10-01a.html

"Russia has pursued a cold policy of self-interest. We could have wished that the Russian Armies should be standing on their present line as the friends and allies of Poland, instead of as invaders. But that the Russian Armies should stand on this line was clearly necessary for the safety of Russia against the Nazi menace.

At any rate the line is there, and an Eastern Front has been created which Nazi Germany does not dare assail. When Herr von Ribbentrop [German Foreign Minister] was summoned to Moscow last week, it was to learn the fact, and to accept the fact, that the Nazi designs upon the Baltic states and upon the Ukraine must come to a dead stop.

I cannot forecast to you the action of Russia. It is a [riddle] wrapped in mystery inside an enigma; but perhaps there is a key. That key is Russian national interest."

On the other hand, Wikipedia's article on The secret protocol of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact says,

With the Western nations unwilling to accede to Soviet demands, Stalin instead entered a secret Nazi–Soviet alliance.[77]

In summary the answer seems to me to depend on what you think "de facto ally" means.

The section titled Expansion of raw materials and military trading seems to me to meet at least the second definition of "ally", and quite possible the first as well:

define:ally

  • noun: a state formally cooperating with another for a military or other purpose, typically by treaty.
    antonyms: enemy, opponent
    a group of nations taking military action together, in particular the countries that fought with the US in World War I and World War II.
  • verb: combine or unite a resource or commodity with (another) for mutual benefit.

On the other hand, per for example Churchill's view, they were also "opponents".


It's possible that the Soviets were "reluctant allies" (for example, if I were cooperate with you because you had a gun to my head, I'm uncertain whether that would make me your "ally").

Various points of view are discussed in Wikipedia's Post-war commentary regarding the motives of Stalin and Hitler.

Several possible motives are alleged, including:

  • In return for 'non-intervention' Stalin secured a breathing space of immunity from German attack
  • The claim that the Soviet Union was at the time threatened by Hitler, as Stalin supposed,...is a legend, to whose creators Stalin himself belonged
  • Stalin's primary motive for signing the Soviet–German non-aggression treaty was his calculation that such a pact could result in a conflict between the capitalist countries of Western Europe

Churchill (who was of course partisan) alleged that they weren't exactly cooperating: from http://www.ibiblio.org/pha/policy/1939/1939-10-01a.html

"Russia has pursued a cold policy of self-interest. We could have wished that the Russian Armies should be standing on their present line as the friends and allies of Poland, instead of as invaders. But that the Russian Armies should stand on this line was clearly necessary for the safety of Russia against the Nazi menace.

At any rate the line is there, and an Eastern Front has been created which Nazi Germany does not dare assail. When Herr von Ribbentrop [German Foreign Minister] was summoned to Moscow last week, it was to learn the fact, and to accept the fact, that the Nazi designs upon the Baltic states and upon the Ukraine must come to a dead stop.

I cannot forecast to you the action of Russia. It is a [riddle] wrapped in mystery inside an enigma; but perhaps there is a key. That key is Russian national interest."

On the other hand, Wikipedia's article on The secret protocol of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact says,

With the Western nations unwilling to accede to Soviet demands, Stalin instead entered a secret Nazi–Soviet alliance.[77]

In summary the answer seems to me to depend on what you think "de facto ally" means.

The section titled Expansion of raw materials and military trading seems to me to meet at least the second definition of "ally", and quite possible the first as well:

  • noun: a state formally cooperating with another for a military or other purpose, typically by treaty.
    antonyms: enemy, opponent
    a group of nations taking military action together, in particular the countries that fought with the US in World War I and World War II.
  • verb: combine or unite a resource or commodity with (another) for mutual benefit. 

On the other hand, per for example Churchill's view, they were also "opponents".


It's possible that the Soviets were "reluctant allies" (for example, if I were cooperate with you because you had a gun to my head, I'm uncertain whether that would make me your "ally").

Various points of view are discussed in Wikipedia's Post-war commentary regarding the motives of Stalin and Hitler.

Several possible motives are alleged, including:

  • In return for 'non-intervention' Stalin secured a breathing space of immunity from German attack
  • The claim that the Soviet Union was at the time threatened by Hitler, as Stalin supposed,...is a legend, to whose creators Stalin himself belonged
  • Stalin's primary motive for signing the Soviet–German non-aggression treaty was his calculation that such a pact could result in a conflict between the capitalist countries of Western Europe
3 The standard (and more meaningful) version of the quote doesn't match the source!
source | link

Churchill (who was of course partisan) alleged that they weren't exactly cooperating: from http://www.ibiblio.org/pha/policy/1939/1939-10-01a.html

"Russia has pursued a cold policy of self-interest. We could have wished that the Russian Armies should be standing on their present line as the friends and allies of Poland, instead of as invaders. But that the Russian Armies should stand on this line was clearly necessary for the safety of Russia against the Nazi menace.

At any rate the line is there, and an Eastern Front has been created which Nazi Germany does not dare assail. When Herr von Ribbentrop [German Foreign Minister] was summoned to Moscow last week, it was to learn the fact, and to accept the fact, that the Nazi designs upon the Baltic states and upon the Ukraine must come to a dead stop.

I cannot forecast to you the action of Russia. It is a middle[riddle] wrapped in mystery inside an enigma; but perhaps there is a key. That key is Russian national interest."

On the other hand, Wikipedia's article on The secret protocol of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact says,

With the Western nations unwilling to accede to Soviet demands, Stalin instead entered a secret Nazi–Soviet alliance.[77]

In summary the answer seems to me to depend on what you think "de facto ally" means.

The section titled Expansion of raw materials and military trading seems to me to meet at least the second definition of "ally", and quite possible the first as well:

define:ally

  • noun: a state formally cooperating with another for a military or other purpose, typically by treaty.
    antonyms: enemy, opponent
    a group of nations taking military action together, in particular the countries that fought with the US in World War I and World War II.
  • verb: combine or unite a resource or commodity with (another) for mutual benefit.

On the other hand, per for example Churchill's view, they were also "opponents".


It's possible that the Soviets were "reluctant allies" (for example, if I were cooperate with you because you had a gun to my head, I'm uncertain whether that would make me your "ally").

Various points of view are discussed in Wikipedia's Post-war commentary regarding the motives of Stalin and Hitler.

Several possible motives are alleged, including:

  • In return for 'non-intervention' Stalin secured a breathing space of immunity from German attack
  • The claim that the Soviet Union was at the time threatened by Hitler, as Stalin supposed,...is a legend, to whose creators Stalin himself belonged
  • Stalin's primary motive for signing the Soviet–German non-aggression treaty was his calculation that such a pact could result in a conflict between the capitalist countries of Western Europe

Churchill (who was of course partisan) alleged that they weren't exactly cooperating: from http://www.ibiblio.org/pha/policy/1939/1939-10-01a.html

"Russia has pursued a cold policy of self-interest. We could have wished that the Russian Armies should be standing on their present line as the friends and allies of Poland, instead of as invaders. But that the Russian Armies should stand on this line was clearly necessary for the safety of Russia against the Nazi menace.

At any rate the line is there, and an Eastern Front has been created which Nazi Germany does not dare assail. When Herr von Ribbentrop [German Foreign Minister] was summoned to Moscow last week, it was to learn the fact, and to accept the fact, that the Nazi designs upon the Baltic states and upon the Ukraine must come to a dead stop.

I cannot forecast to you the action of Russia. It is a middle wrapped in mystery inside an enigma; but perhaps there is a key. That key is Russian national interest."

On the other hand, Wikipedia's article on The secret protocol of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact says,

With the Western nations unwilling to accede to Soviet demands, Stalin instead entered a secret Nazi–Soviet alliance.[77]

In summary the answer seems to me to depend on what you think "de facto ally" means.

The section titled Expansion of raw materials and military trading seems to me to meet at least the second definition of "ally", and quite possible the first as well:

define:ally

  • noun: a state formally cooperating with another for a military or other purpose, typically by treaty.
    antonyms: enemy, opponent
    a group of nations taking military action together, in particular the countries that fought with the US in World War I and World War II.
  • verb: combine or unite a resource or commodity with (another) for mutual benefit.

On the other hand, per for example Churchill's view, they were also "opponents".


It's possible that the Soviets were "reluctant allies" (for example, if I were cooperate with you because you had a gun to my head, I'm uncertain whether that would make me your "ally").

Various points of view are discussed in Wikipedia's Post-war commentary regarding the motives of Stalin and Hitler.

Several possible motives are alleged, including:

  • In return for 'non-intervention' Stalin secured a breathing space of immunity from German attack
  • The claim that the Soviet Union was at the time threatened by Hitler, as Stalin supposed,...is a legend, to whose creators Stalin himself belonged
  • Stalin's primary motive for signing the Soviet–German non-aggression treaty was his calculation that such a pact could result in a conflict between the capitalist countries of Western Europe

Churchill (who was of course partisan) alleged that they weren't exactly cooperating: from http://www.ibiblio.org/pha/policy/1939/1939-10-01a.html

"Russia has pursued a cold policy of self-interest. We could have wished that the Russian Armies should be standing on their present line as the friends and allies of Poland, instead of as invaders. But that the Russian Armies should stand on this line was clearly necessary for the safety of Russia against the Nazi menace.

At any rate the line is there, and an Eastern Front has been created which Nazi Germany does not dare assail. When Herr von Ribbentrop [German Foreign Minister] was summoned to Moscow last week, it was to learn the fact, and to accept the fact, that the Nazi designs upon the Baltic states and upon the Ukraine must come to a dead stop.

I cannot forecast to you the action of Russia. It is a [riddle] wrapped in mystery inside an enigma; but perhaps there is a key. That key is Russian national interest."

On the other hand, Wikipedia's article on The secret protocol of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact says,

With the Western nations unwilling to accede to Soviet demands, Stalin instead entered a secret Nazi–Soviet alliance.[77]

In summary the answer seems to me to depend on what you think "de facto ally" means.

The section titled Expansion of raw materials and military trading seems to me to meet at least the second definition of "ally", and quite possible the first as well:

define:ally

  • noun: a state formally cooperating with another for a military or other purpose, typically by treaty.
    antonyms: enemy, opponent
    a group of nations taking military action together, in particular the countries that fought with the US in World War I and World War II.
  • verb: combine or unite a resource or commodity with (another) for mutual benefit.

On the other hand, per for example Churchill's view, they were also "opponents".


It's possible that the Soviets were "reluctant allies" (for example, if I were cooperate with you because you had a gun to my head, I'm uncertain whether that would make me your "ally").

Various points of view are discussed in Wikipedia's Post-war commentary regarding the motives of Stalin and Hitler.

Several possible motives are alleged, including:

  • In return for 'non-intervention' Stalin secured a breathing space of immunity from German attack
  • The claim that the Soviet Union was at the time threatened by Hitler, as Stalin supposed,...is a legend, to whose creators Stalin himself belonged
  • Stalin's primary motive for signing the Soviet–German non-aggression treaty was his calculation that such a pact could result in a conflict between the capitalist countries of Western Europe
2 modern views re motive
source | link

Churchill (who was of course partisan) alleged that they weren't exactly cooperating: from http://www.ibiblio.org/pha/policy/1939/1939-10-01a.html

"Russia has pursued a cold policy of self-interest. We could have wished that the Russian Armies should be standing on their present line as the friends and allies of Poland, instead of as invaders. But that the Russian Armies should stand on this line was clearly necessary for the safety of Russia against the Nazi menace.

At any rate the line is there, and an Eastern Front has been created which Nazi Germany does not dare assail. When Herr von Ribbentrop [German Foreign Minister] was summoned to Moscow last week, it was to learn the fact, and to accept the fact, that the Nazi designs upon the Baltic states and upon the Ukraine must come to a dead stop.

I cannot forecast to you the action of Russia. It is a middle wrapped in mystery inside an enigma; but perhaps there is a key. That key is Russian national interest."

On the other hand, Wikipedia's article on The secret protocol of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact says,

With the Western nations unwilling to accede to Soviet demands, Stalin instead entered a secret Nazi–Soviet alliance.[77]

In summary the answer seems to me to depend on what you think "de facto ally" means.

The section titled Expansion of raw materials and military trading seems to me to meet at least the second definition of "ally", and quite possible the first as well:

define:ally

  • noun: a state formally cooperating with another for a military or other purpose, typically by treaty.
    antonyms: enemy, opponent
    a group of nations taking military action together, in particular the countries that fought with the US in World War I and World War II.
  • verb: combine or unite a resource or commodity with (another) for mutual benefit.

On the other hand, per for example Churchill's view, they were also "opponents".


It's possible that the Soviets were "reluctant allies" (for example, if I were cooperate with you because you had a gun to my head, I'm uncertain whether that would make me your "ally").

Various points of view are discussed in Wikipedia's Post-war commentary regarding the motives of Stalin and Hitler.

Several possible motives are alleged, including:

  • In return for 'non-intervention' Stalin secured a breathing space of immunity from German attack
  • The claim that the Soviet Union was at the time threatened by Hitler, as Stalin supposed,...is a legend, to whose creators Stalin himself belonged
  • Stalin's primary motive for signing the Soviet–German non-aggression treaty was his calculation that such a pact could result in a conflict between the capitalist countries of Western Europe

Churchill (who was of course partisan) alleged that they weren't exactly cooperating: from http://www.ibiblio.org/pha/policy/1939/1939-10-01a.html

"Russia has pursued a cold policy of self-interest. We could have wished that the Russian Armies should be standing on their present line as the friends and allies of Poland, instead of as invaders. But that the Russian Armies should stand on this line was clearly necessary for the safety of Russia against the Nazi menace.

At any rate the line is there, and an Eastern Front has been created which Nazi Germany does not dare assail. When Herr von Ribbentrop [German Foreign Minister] was summoned to Moscow last week, it was to learn the fact, and to accept the fact, that the Nazi designs upon the Baltic states and upon the Ukraine must come to a dead stop.

I cannot forecast to you the action of Russia. It is a middle wrapped in mystery inside an enigma; but perhaps there is a key. That key is Russian national interest."

On the other hand, Wikipedia's article on The secret protocol of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact says,

With the Western nations unwilling to accede to Soviet demands, Stalin instead entered a secret Nazi–Soviet alliance.[77]

In summary the answer seems to me to depend on what you think "de facto ally" means.

The section titled Expansion of raw materials and military trading seems to me to meet at least the second definition of "ally", and quite possible the first as well:

define:ally

  • noun: a state formally cooperating with another for a military or other purpose, typically by treaty.
    antonyms: enemy, opponent
    a group of nations taking military action together, in particular the countries that fought with the US in World War I and World War II.
  • verb: combine or unite a resource or commodity with (another) for mutual benefit.

On the other hand, per for example Churchill's view, they were also "opponents".

Churchill (who was of course partisan) alleged that they weren't exactly cooperating: from http://www.ibiblio.org/pha/policy/1939/1939-10-01a.html

"Russia has pursued a cold policy of self-interest. We could have wished that the Russian Armies should be standing on their present line as the friends and allies of Poland, instead of as invaders. But that the Russian Armies should stand on this line was clearly necessary for the safety of Russia against the Nazi menace.

At any rate the line is there, and an Eastern Front has been created which Nazi Germany does not dare assail. When Herr von Ribbentrop [German Foreign Minister] was summoned to Moscow last week, it was to learn the fact, and to accept the fact, that the Nazi designs upon the Baltic states and upon the Ukraine must come to a dead stop.

I cannot forecast to you the action of Russia. It is a middle wrapped in mystery inside an enigma; but perhaps there is a key. That key is Russian national interest."

On the other hand, Wikipedia's article on The secret protocol of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact says,

With the Western nations unwilling to accede to Soviet demands, Stalin instead entered a secret Nazi–Soviet alliance.[77]

In summary the answer seems to me to depend on what you think "de facto ally" means.

The section titled Expansion of raw materials and military trading seems to me to meet at least the second definition of "ally", and quite possible the first as well:

define:ally

  • noun: a state formally cooperating with another for a military or other purpose, typically by treaty.
    antonyms: enemy, opponent
    a group of nations taking military action together, in particular the countries that fought with the US in World War I and World War II.
  • verb: combine or unite a resource or commodity with (another) for mutual benefit.

On the other hand, per for example Churchill's view, they were also "opponents".


It's possible that the Soviets were "reluctant allies" (for example, if I were cooperate with you because you had a gun to my head, I'm uncertain whether that would make me your "ally").

Various points of view are discussed in Wikipedia's Post-war commentary regarding the motives of Stalin and Hitler.

Several possible motives are alleged, including:

  • In return for 'non-intervention' Stalin secured a breathing space of immunity from German attack
  • The claim that the Soviet Union was at the time threatened by Hitler, as Stalin supposed,...is a legend, to whose creators Stalin himself belonged
  • Stalin's primary motive for signing the Soviet–German non-aggression treaty was his calculation that such a pact could result in a conflict between the capitalist countries of Western Europe
1
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