I am afraid I don't agree with DVK's answer. I can propose another definition of homophobia which is not necessarily a cultural meme: homophobia is present when the participation in homosexual acts is tied to the low social status of one or both participants.
By this definition, homophobia is present in some cultures where homosexual acts are widespread, usually because the participant in the passive role always has a low social status (or fears that it will be lowered if his behaviour is known). An example for this in a current culture can be found in this magazine article. The only accounts I have read on homosexuality in Ancient Greece were fiction, not research literature, but they tend to agree that the passive role in the sexual act was restricted to young boys. After age and military success raised their social status, they were expected to become the active partner of another boy.
In animals, such homophobia isn't present in all species who exhibit homosexuality, but it has been observed. An example are the guinea pigs, where individuals with higher social status mount individuals with lower social status.
You don't have to agree with my definition, but if you do, the result isn't very optimistic. Not only is there homophobia in other species, but the homophobia in humans is more widely spread than with the narrower definition.
I would have liked to present more hard data, but I don't have access to scientific sources. I still trust the claim about guinea pigs, not only because it is commonly stated, but because I have observed it myself.