The most exhaustive analysis on this question was performed by Philip Jenkins in his book Pedophiles and Priests: Anatomy of a Contemporary Crisis. Jenkins conclusions, in a nutshell, is that Catholic priests do not commit sexual abuse against minors at a rate higher than other faiths or occupations, and in fact may have rates of sexual abuse less than that of many or most other professions, that the incidence of "pedophilia", i.e., sexual relations with pre-pubescent child, as compared with "ebophilia," sexual relations with post-adolescent teenagers, is extremely small, and that the popular perception of pedophilia and Catholic priests owes much to deeply imbedded historical, American anti-Catholic prejudice and a confluence of sociological factors, including the breakdown of Catholicism as a key identity of Catholics and the fact that because of its structure, the Catholic Church has "deep pockets" that make it an attractive "target" for suits.
Jenkins' study was performed in the late '90s, but its conclusions have held up over time. The recent John Jay College Report on the Causes and Context of Sexual Abuse of Minors by Catholic Priests in the United States, 1950 - 2010, published in May of 2011, confirms that the number of priests accused of child abuse was around 4% of the total number of priests, that the number of priests who were true pedophiles was around 5% of priests acccused of child abuse, and that the incidence of child abuse peaked around 1970 and has fallen since that time. [One should also be aware that not all "child abuse" allegations involve allegations of physical impropriety.]
The John Jay Report contains information about the incidence of child abuse within other faiths and child service organizations. Making a precise comparison of other institutions with the Catholic Church is hampered by the fact that while the Catholic Church has made its data known, other faiths and institutions have engaged in pretty much the behavior that the Catholic Church engaged in prior to the child care scandal shining the light on the issue on the Catholic Church. The publicity given to the Catholic Church has permitted other institutions to escape attention. For example, a report by Charol Shakeshaft in 2004 has been largely ignored. That report synthesized data found from a variety of sources and concluded that 7% of students in grades 8 to 11 had experienced an unwanted sexual contact, with 21% of those being perpetrated by educators. There has, as yet, been no public outcry against schools or educators with respect to "pedophilia" as there has been against the Catholic Church.
The John Jay Report purports to exonerate homosexuality and celibacy as the "causes" of the pedophilia crisis, preferring instead to assign the cause to the general breakdown of social mores during the "Woodstock era." Given the fact that celibate priests are no more likely to engage in pedophilia/ebophilia than other groups, and that the number of child abuse incidents have declined notwithstanding the continuation of the celibacy requirement, it seems contrary to the facts to argue that celibacy causes child abuse or that Catholicism has some propensity toward child abuse.